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Author Topic: Impfen rettet Leben! Ohne Impfen kommt der Tod...  (Read 7657 times)


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Impfen rettet Leben! Ohne Impfen kommt der Tod...
« on: August 03, 2007, 08:24:52 PM »

Das darf man nie vergessen!

Richard Mulvaney - Physician

Older readers of this blog will remember the days when Polio, and its eradication, were on the
minds of everyone. In the 1940s and 1950s hundreds of thousands cases of Polio
constituted a viral invasion of the nation. After the development of an effective killed-virus
version of a vaccine by Jonas Salk at the University of Pittsburgh, the fight was popularized
by The March of Dimes, then known as the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis.
Though the Salk vaccine was replaced after eight years by the more common oral vaccine
used now, it led the battle against this public health hazard that forced many to live their lives
confined to an iron lung.

So, who was the first to administer the Salk vaccine? Richard Mulvaney, a Virginia physician
who died October 26, 2006 of congestive heart failure in Fairfax, Va. He was 88. He was the
first of many volunteers to administer the vaccine in its public trials. His first patient,
6-year-old Randy Kerr of Falls Church, Va. became instantly famous when a photo of his April
26, 1954 inoculation was sent over news wires to papers nationwide.

The U.S. saw its last wild virus in 1979 and the Americas region was certified Polio free in
1994. Still, sporadic occurances of the virus occur to this day in the U.S. and Polio is still a
major health problem in a number of regions in the world.

Herzlichen Dank an Doug Lynner,
doug at mlwebworks dot com
für diese Erinnerung
« Last Edit: August 03, 2007, 08:27:40 PM by ama »


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Impfen rettet Leben! Ohne Impfen kommt der Tod...
« Reply #1 on: August 04, 2007, 01:22:32 AM »

50 Years Later, 'Polio Pioneers' Still Recall the Fear

Salk vaccine marked beginning of the end for crippling virus

MONDAY, April 26 (HealthDayNews) -- When Marjorie Adams raised her hand at
a local PTA meeting 50 years ago, she didn't think she'd be making
But by that simple act, the Virginia resident volunteered her 6-year-old
daughter, Gail, to be one of the first to receive an experimental polio
vaccine on April 26, 1954.
The vaccine, developed by 39-year-old microbiologist Dr. Jonas E. Salk,
would be tested in the largest voluntary clinical field trial ever
undertaken. The children in the trial would become known as "Polio
Pioneeers." And the magnitude of Salk's discovery would soon reverberate
around the world.

The Salk vaccine marked the beginning of the end of poliomyelitis, the
summertime virus that terrified millions as it killed and crippled,
usually striking children.

"Polio was a terrible fear. You can't recognize what a fearful thing it
was. There were people around who were crippled [with] polio. It was a
real thing. It wasn't just something you just think about, like now. It
was there with you," said Adams, who is now 90 and lives in Pompano Beach,

"When your child fell sick with a cold or their body ached, you never
knew," she added.

By the mid 1950s, polio was attacking up to 60,000 people a year, mostly
children, in the United States alone. In its mildest form, the disease,
which is caused by one of three viruses, results only in a sore throat,
headache, fever and some stomach distress. If the virus enters the
bloodstream, however, it can travel to the nervous system causing, in a
worst-case scenario, partial or total paralysis.


Many polio victims were forced to spend the rest of their lives in iron
lung devices like these.
(March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation)

Dr. Mulvaney admininister the first vaccination.
(March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation)

Dr. Salk's discovery of the polio vaccine made headlines the world over.
(March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation)

One shopkeeper expresses a nation's gratitude for Dr. Salk's discovery.
(March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation)

 A. Child in iron lung WHO

 E. Victims of polio WHO

B. Iron lung ward

A young girl, parayzed by polio, gazes out from her iron lung.
In the foreground are the elaborate leg braces worn by those
whom the disease crippled less severely.
(March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation)

Medical personnel tend to polio victims in an iron lung ward
during a 1950s epidemic in Boston.
(Photo courtesy of March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation)

Single-Child Iron Lung Respirator, early 1930s
The new respirators were in great demand in Boston and throughout the United States.
Polio epidemics, however, continued to bring patients to both the Children's and
Infants' Hospitals. The huge demand for respirators threatened to outstrip the
number of iron lung machines available.  
Photo: Children's Hospital Boston Archives.

Room-Sized Respirator, 1933
To help meet the demand, Children's built a room-sized respirator in the basement
of the old Infants' Hospital Building in 1932.
In 1933, there were 49 admissions for polio;
in 1935 there were 146 admissions.

Photo: Children's Hospital Boston Archives.

Ignorant scum want Pakistani children to die of polio
BBC reports:
A senior health official has been killed and three guards injured in a
bomb blast in Pakistan's tribal region bordering Afghanistan, officials
The dead man, Abdul Ghani Khan, played a key role in a polio immunisation
drive in the Bajaur tribal region.
Dr Khan was returning from a meeting of tribal elders to persuade them to
end their opposition to the campaign. ...
The government is facing resistance from some tribes in its campaign to
vaccinate children against polio.
Some tribal leaders say the vaccine is a part of a US conspiracy to reduce
fertility and reproduction rates.
Two of the three guards travelling with Dr Khan are in a serious condition
after the blast, in a village around 50kms (30 miles) northeast of Khar,
the main town in the Bajaur tribal region.
Pro-Taleban militants are known to be active in the area.
In the interest of fairness, there are plenty of very foolish people who
want American kids to die of polio too. They haven't killed anybody in the
interest of preventing vaccinations, so I won't call them scum.
February 18, 2007 at 10:31 AM

The hospital had two respirators and no patients who needed them Sunday
morning, July 24. Sunday night, the phone rang twice within 30 minutes in
Nellie Brown’s home to inform her two patients had gone into the
respirators and a third looked imminent. …

Monday, Reichart came out, looked at the plans and at the iron lung
already operating. He’d never seen one before. As he left,
Nellie said quietly, “You’d better hurry. We may need another
before night. …”
Back at his factory, Jack Reichart called in seven skilled metal workers
and showed them the plans for the lung. They analyzed the things
they’d need, and Reichart got on the phone to demand them, in the
name of the emergency, from Muncie stores and factories.
The response was immediate, enthusiastic and everything was donated. The
Coulter Boiler Co. cut out the ends of two steel alcohol drums Nellie
Brown had foresightedly saved and welded them together for the body of the
Kirby-Wood Lumber Co. made round plywood ends for the barrels; Sears
Roebuck donated a vacuum cleaner (donated 12 before the battle was over),
the J. L. Moore Co. made the iron stand to support the barrels, Muncie
Tent and Awning made the canvas headrest, Holland Glass Co. made the
manometer (a gauge to measure the vacuum inside the lung).…
Ten hours after they started, the lung was finished and trucked to the
hospital. … Reichart went back to his factory to make another
respirator — and a better one (he made four, all told). During the
next few days he was deluged with offers to help. Workers from half a
dozen plants in town dropped in on their way home to ask if they  
couldn’t put in hours of their leisure time — free.
Engineers from the Borg Warner Gear plant came over, looked at
Reichart’s plans, and went back to draw up plans for their own
version (they completed six).
When Jesse Vickers’ 6-year-old son went down with polio his fellow
workers at General Motors’ Chevrolet plant swung into action to make
the first of two lungs, one of which had a gasoline motor and was
portable. …

Poliomyelitis and the Salk Vaccine
Bentley Historical Library Holdings
Andrea Lael Cappaert, 1952-1980
Papers, 1952-1980
3 linear feet
Iron Lung patient Andrea Cappaert enjoys a vist from her
(Andrea Lael Cappaert Papers, Box 1)
Resident of Ann Arbor, Michigan, stricken with polio at age
three and confined to an iron lung and portable respirator and
wheelchair. The papers include journals, short stories, poems,
scrapbooks, drawings, and photographs documenting her
struggles as a polio victim and her efforts to cope with her
disability and lead an independent life.
The collection includes a copy of
Cappaert (Andrea's mother) -- "the
story of Andi, struck down by polio at
the age of three,; of illness bravely
borne; of parents doing everything that
intelligent and self-giving love could
do for an afflicted daughter ...."
Her father's papers, LeRoy Cappaert,
1963-2002, include a photo album
about Andrea.

Page from Andrea Cappaert photo album
(Andrea Lael Cappaert Papers, Box 1)
Last updated: 3/2005
Copyright ©-2005 the Regents of the University of Michigan

U.S. Sen. Phil Hart of Michigan visits Andrea Cappaert (in Iron Lung).
(Courtesy of Bentley Historical Library)

British Iron Lung
Robert Henderson, a Scottish M.D. who developed the first British iron
lung, only to find himself punished and his role forgotten, died at age
97. [anno 2000?]
Henderson as a young doctor saw a demonstration of the first practical
iron lung, the so-called “Drinker Respirator,” named for its inventor,
Philip Drinker. The iron lung was an airtight chamber enclosing the
patient from the neck down. By creating a vacuum in the chamber, it forced
the lungs to expand and fill with air the patient could inhale because his
head was outside the chamber. The vacuum would then be released, causing
the air to be exhaled.
Excited at the new machine’s possibilities, Henderson constructed one as
soon as he returned to his hospital in Aberdeen. Within a month it had
saved the life of a 10-year-old boy suffering from polio.

Despite this success, Henderson was reprimanded because he had secretly
constructed it using hospital facilities. As a result, Henderson scrapped
his draft paper on the machine, and his role was forgotten until 1997,
when an article in the Scottish Medical Journal set things straight.
Henderson’s design was used in the production of at least 75 Scottish iron
Henderson went on to a distinguished medical career, directing hospitals
during WWII, and named a Commander of the British Empire in 1947. A 1985
biography of Margaret Thatcher claimed that he had once been a “notable
rival” to the man who eventually wed her, but Henderson denied it. “We
were very close friends,” he said. “But I never courted Margaret or
proposed to her.” Lucky man.

[*QUOTE*] 1928, Children's Hospital in Boston was the
scene of the first use of an "iron lung." Developed by
a young Harvard doctor, it was little more than a
galvanized iron box, a bed, and two household
vacuum cleaners. A little girl whose lungs were
paralyzed by polio was placed in the airtight metal
cylinder with only her head exposed. The 700-pound,
3X 7 foot, galvanized metal machine breathed for her.
Vacuum pumps connected to it drew the air in and out
of the cylinder, causing the child's lungs to rise and
fall in regular breaths. For the next 30 years, this
invention would mean the difference between life and
death for victims of polio. It breathed for them.

The Polio Years at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics

Between the years of 1948 and 1954, there were more than
10,000 cases of poliomyelitis diagnosed in the state of Iowa.
Epidemics every summer left many children with chronic
paralytic disease, and it was the leading cause of physical
The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics was one of the
leading centers for polio treatment and research at this time. The
polio isolation ward was on first floor west of General Hospital,
and it was a center which provided care for people from all over
the nation. Often as many as thirty to forty children with acute
paralytic disease and from ten to twenty patients in respirators
were placed on this ward. The unit eventually became so
crowded that all of the polio patients were moved to the
Children's Hospital. Overcrowding continued to be severe; in
1950 the Hospital admitted 560 patients to the polio ward, and
within two years that number had grown by more than a hundred.

61. Patient with Birthday Gift 1948
Courtesy of University of Iowa Photo Service
Pediatric Polio Isolation Unit
Children's Hospital circa 1950
Courtesy of University of Iowa Photo Service
Transporting Iron Lung circa 1950
Courtesy of University of Iowa Photo Service

In the winter of 1952 to 1953, Gerhard Hartman, the
Superintendent of the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics,
wrote letters to administrators at Veterans Hospital and Mercy
Hospital in Iowa City. His letters express gratitude for the loan of
twenty-one hospital beds and a respirator; they also reveal the
severity of the 1952 outbreak (3,564 cases were reported in the
state of Iowa.) Hartman wrote,
As you know, during the past year we treated approximately
700 polio patients and most of them were admitted in a 75
day interval last fall. The unanticipated pressure of
admissions outstripped many of our resources and adequate
bed space was one major problem more easily handled
through your cooperation.
Polio outbreaks continued throughout the fifties, but the high
numbers of cases gradually tapered off. Jonas Salk's discovery of
a vaccine made polio epidemics a thing of the past.
(A History of the Department of Pediatrics, by Paul B. McCray,
p. 43 and A Pictorial History of the University of Iowa, by John
Gerber, p. 196.)

62.Braces 1949
The donor writes:
"My brother Ted* is the 8th in a family
of 11 children. He was 13 when he was
stricken on Labor Day week-end, 1949.
He was very ill, had a trache, and was
in an iron lung. He was at Children's
Hospital from Labor Day until
Christmas, came home for the holidays,
and was back in Iowa City during
January and February of 1950. It was
during this second visit that the braces
were fitted. After he was discharged,
he and my parents struggled daily with
those confounded braces, but he never
walked again. He is paralyzed from the
waist down, and had been confined to a
wheelchair all these years.
Ted attended all 4 years of high school
and graduated, quite a feat in itself, as
all classrooms were on second floor. In
those days, there was no such thing as
"access for the handicapped." Our
brothers and friends just made it a
point to always have someone
available to help. After high school,
Ted began a job that he still holds -
managing a satellite office for a group
of veterinarians from a neighboring
town. He bought a car, which a
mechanic friend altered to hand
controls, which was rare around here at
the time. The car really did, and still
does, a lot for his morale; he no longer
had to rely on others to go when and
where he wanted.
Ted is an avid Iowa basketball fan - he has had season tickets
for probably 20 years, long before Lute's reign, and had sat
through many losing seasons.
Ted is 53 now - he has severe scoliosis of the spine because he
did not wear the back brace he was also fitted with, (I did not
find that.) He is fiercely independent; it's almost impossible to
help him in any way."
*The name Ted is used to protect his identity.
UIHC Medical Museum
Donor anonymous

Number of reported cases in the state of Iowa, 1945-1970
1945 - 320
1946 - 620
1947 - 176
1948 - 1236
1949 - 1217
1950 - 1399
1951 - 466
1952 - 3564
1953 - 613
1954 - 1445
1955 - 561
1956 - 580
1957 - 21P*/57NP*
1958 - 35/38
1959 - 285/123
1960 - 6/19
1961 - 10/8
1962 - 4/3
1963 - 0
1964 - 1
1965 - 3/1
1966 - 0
1967 - 1
1968 - 1
1969 - 1
1970 - 0
*P - Paralytic *NP - Non-paralytic

Statistics provided by the Iowa Department of Health

The Iron Lung
The Iron Lung, described as a body tank respirator, was invented
by Drs. Philip Drinker and Louis A. Shaw in 1928 at the Harvard
School of Public Health in Boston. The Iron Lung proved very
successful for ventilating the patient whose respiratory system
was paralyzed, and was most heavily utilized during the polio
epidemic; it remains in use today by many polio patients.
63. UIHC Medical Museum.
Gift of Kirkwood Community
College, 1986

The Iron Lung is an airtight cylinder that accommodates the
patient up to the neck, leaving the head exposed. By means of
a large bellows located on the underside of the cylinder and
powered electrically or manually, a subatmospheric (negative)
pressure is created within the cylinder. The negative pressure
within the chamber which surrounds the patient's chest is less
than the pressure outside the cylinder, causing air to move
into the patient's lungs and creating an effective breath.
In the late 1950's and early 1960's, the Iron Lung was eventually
replaced by more sophisticated ventilation devices. The new
devices were considerably smaller and quieter to operate, and they permitted easier access to the patient.
One of the earliest mechanical devices for ventilation, the iron
lung has continued to be a useful, non-invasive means of artificial
respiration for six decades. Despite the difficulties associated
with its use, it is making a resurgence because of its less invasive
method of ventilation.

The University of Iowa
Last modification date: Mon Jun 5 13:48:02 2006

Patient in iron lung, around 1949.
Source: National Library of Medicine.

Fire fighters -- Fort Wayne, Allen County, Indiana

Polio victim Billy Crothers in an Iron Lung. Billy was about three years
old when he was stricken with polio. He was in an iron lung until he was
in his twenties. The fire department serviced his iron lung until he died
in the 1970's. Date 12/00/1952

Polio victims who experienced paralysis of the chest muscles were placed
in respirators or "iron lungs." In 1953 some patients treated at the
Hospital were transferred to long-term care facilities in other states,
requiring the use of generator to supply power to the iron lung.
Assistance for the care and transfer of patients was provided by the
Chester County Chapter of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis.

In 1952 more than 57,600 people living in the U.S. contracted
the poliovirus disease. For many survivors, the iron lung
respirator became a haven, giving the polio-stricken patient an
extension of life, doing the breathing for them. Here we see
nurses in the MGH White Building caring for patients with the
new technology. The lessons from this experience improved
respiratory care and influenced critical care nursing.

« Last Edit: August 04, 2007, 04:47:39 AM by ama »
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