TG-1 * Transgallaxys Forum 1

Pages: [1]

Author Topic: Constitutions of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Relation to Cerebral Infarction  (Read 37 times)

YanTing

  • Jr. Member
  • *
  • Posts: 69

Note: recall that the type of classification discussed here will be recognized by the World Health Organization.  See, for example:
https://respectfulinsolence.com/2018/10/04/the-world-health-organization-embracing-traditional-chinese-medicine-pseudoscience-in-icd-11/

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Vol. 24, No. 5 (2018) pp. 458-462

The Analysis of Constitutions of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Relation to Cerebral Infarction in a Chinese Sample

Jiaqi Liu, MD,1,2 Fei Xu, MD,1,2 Nabijan Mohammadtursun, MD,1–3 Yubao Lv, MD,1,2
Zihui Tang, MD, PhD,1,2 and Jingcheng Dong, MD, PhD1,2

1 Department of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
2 The Institute of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
3 College of Xinjiang Uyghur Medicine, Hotan, China

Abstract

Objective: To investigate the relationships between the constitutions of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and patients with cerebral infarction (CI) in a Chinese sample.
Methods: A total of 3748 participants with complete data were available for data analysis. All study subjects underwent complete clinical baseline characteristics' evaluation, including a physical examination and response to a structured, nurse-assisted, self-administrated questionnaire. A population of 2010 neutral participants were used as the control group. Multiple variable regression (MLR) were employed to estimate the relationship between constitutions of TCM and the outcome.
Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the association of body constitution of TCM and CI.
Settings/Location: Communications and healthcare centers in Shanghai.
Subjects: A total of 3748 participants with complete data were available for data analysis.
Outcome measures: All study subjects underwent complete clinical baseline characteristics' evaluation, including a physical examination and response to a structured, nurse-assisted, self-administrated questionnaire. A population of 2010 neutral participants were used as the control group. MLR were employed to estimate the relationship between constitutions of TCM and the outcome.
Result: The prevalence of CI was 2.84% and 4.66% in neutral participants and yang-deficient participants (p=0.012), respectively. Univariate analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between yang deficiency and CI. After adjustment for relevant potential confounding factors, the MLR detected significant associations between yang deficiency and CI (odds ratio=1.44, p=0.093).
Conclusion: A yang-deficient constitution was significantly and independently associated with CI. A higher prevalence of CI was found in yang-deficient participants as compared with neutral participants.

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/acm.2017.0027

Excerpts:

"It is important to clarify individual differences and general associations in human life and health. Investigators have found that natural endowments and postnatal acquirements in the process of a lifetime form one's constitution; it is the synthesis of morphological structure, physiological function, and psychological state, in which the inherent characteristics of humans are of relative stability. Constitutional medicine is designed to meet the developmental demands of modern Western medicine; however, it has been based on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory since the late 1970s. The constitutions of Chinese people are divided into nine patterns: neutral, qi deficient, yang deficient, yin deficient, phlegm–dampness, damp–heat, blood stasis, qi-stagnation, and special constitution.1 Previous studies have indicated that specific constitutions might have a close correlation with common human diseases.2–5 Therefore, constitutions of TCM may aid in the recognition and prevention of chronic diseases through investigation of susceptible bodies and discussion of the relations between constitutions and syndromes."

"TCM theory considers constitutions as the internal determinants of occurrence, development, and prognoses of diseases; thus, they may provide evidence that promotes prevention of CI recurrence. Constitutions of TCM are associated with hypertension (HTN), which is the main risk factor for CI.5 Additionally, yang deficiency is associated with immunotoxicity of hydrocortisone in Th1/Th2-related cytokine production, which may influence the development of CI.4"

"Table 2. Comparison of Prevalence of Cerebral Infarction Among Constitutions of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Neutral"  [variables included: neutral, qi deficient, yang deficient, yin deficient, phlegm-dampness, damp-heat, blood stasis, qi stagnation, and special]

"One interesting finding was that yang deficiency was significantly and independently associated with CI. The prevalence of CI was more frequent in the yang-deficient group as compared with the neutral group. A positive correlation between yang deficiency and CI was detected through univariate analysis. MLR analyses demonstrated that yang deficiency and CI had significant and independent associations. Researchers found that yin-deficient constitution patients with aspirin resistance had higher recurrences of cerebral infarction,14 whereas Han et al. found that the damp–heat and qi-stagnation types might lead to greater susceptibility of hypertensive patients to have an intracerebral hemorrhage.15 Additionally, another study reported that syndromes of phlegm, blood stasis, and qi deficiency are closely correlated with coagulation function, which is a risk factor for acute cerebral infarction. Constitutions of TCM emphasize the effect of constitutional factors on the evolution and tendency of diseases; hence, the theory of constitutions is an important part of the TCM system because disparities in individual constitutions might result in individual susceptibility to certain pathogenic factors or diseases.

"A yang-deficient constitution is a basic classification in the constitutional system of TCM, and one study showed that the level of IgG lowered in patients who were inclined to be kidney-yang-deficient.16 Chronic inflammation strongly influences CI development and is correlated with CI severity and outcome.17,18 More interestingly, in yang-deficient model mice, a yang-deficient state was associated with Th1/Th2-related cytokine expression..."

"Yang deficiency, especially kidney-yang-xu (deficiency), means that there is a yin–yang imbalance and diminishing energy levels in the physiological functioning of the body.7,22 In microbial cell factories, yang represents carbon metabolism, and yang deficiency represents energy metabolism decreasing as well as ATP generation deficiency23 and even, to some extent, mitochondrial dysfunction. Evidence indicates a role for mitochondrial dysfunction in CI24 through its link to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, calcium dysregulation, inflammation, intrinsic apoptotic cell death etc.25 In addition, in TCM theory, yin functions on behalf of antioxidation and yang does so for oxidation.26 A yin–yang imbalance means that there is an imbalance between antioxidation and oxidation that is caused by releasing harmful intermediates called ROS, which is a significant risk factor of CI.27 Yao et al. revealed that some susceptible genes, such as RGS6, mGluR5, GAPDHL19, and IKZF1, are involved in the maintenance of a yang-deficient constitution.28 Thus, these genes are correlated with changes in cAMP and cGMP levels, energy metabolism, and immune function, which exert influences on CI.29–31 In summary, yang deficiency might be a potential risk factor for CI, and promotion of yang in CI patients with yang deficiency could likely reduce the recurrence of CI."

"This study suggested that a yang-deficient constitution is both significantly and independently associated with CI. A higher prevalence of CI was found in yang-deficient participants as compared with neutral participants. These findings may provide insights into clinical practice regarding both the prevention and diagnosis of CI."
Logged
Pages: [1]