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Author Topic: Nahrungsergänzungmittel aus Indien besteht zu 1/6 aus Quecksilber  (Read 42 times)

Eulophon

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Nahrungsergänzungmittel aus Indien besteht zu 1/6 aus Quecksilber
« on: September 03, 2019, 05:11:14 PM »

Nahrungsergänzungsmittel aus Indien besteht zu 1/6 aus Quecksilber. (164 Gramm pro Kilogramm!)

Wie die das geschafft haben, ist mir ein Rätsel. Ob ein Messfehler vorliegt?


https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/rasff-window/portal/?event=notificationDetail&NOTIF_REFERENCE=2019.3085

[*quote*]
    European Commission
    RASFF Portal

Notification details - 2019.3085

mercury (164000 mg/kg - ppm) in food supplements from India

Reference: 2019.3085
Notification type: food - information for attention - consumer complaint
Notification date: 30/08/2019
Action taken:
 
Last update: 30/08/2019
Distribution status: product traded online
Notification from: Czech Republic (CZ)
Product: food supplements

Classification: information for attention
Product category: dietetic foods, food supplements, fortified foods

Risk decision: serious

Published in RASFF Consumers' Portal: has never been published

Hazards

Substance / Hazard    Category    Analytical result    Units    Sampling date
mercury    metals    164000    mg/kg - ppm    11/07/2019


Countries/organisations concerned (D = distribution, O = origin): Czech Republic  INFOSAN  India (O)
[*/quote*]



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Eulophon

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Re: Nahrungsergänzungmittel aus Indien besteht zu 1/6 aus Quecksilber
« Reply #1 on: September 03, 2019, 05:14:44 PM »

Das RASFF Portal der EU Kommission hat eine Liste, deren neueste 100 Einträge hier veröffentlicht sind.


Aktuell steht dort am 3.9.2019:

https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/rasff-window/portal/?event=notificationsList&StartRow=1

[*quote*]
    European Commission
    RASFF Portal

    Notifications list
    New search
    Export to...

Notifications list

    First
    Previous 100
    Notifications 1 to 100 of 57508
    Next 100
    Last

     Classification
Descending sort on notification date    Date of case
Sorted by notification date downwards    Reference
   Notifying country
   Subject
     Product Category
   Type
   Risk decision
   
1.    alert    03/09/2019    2019.3125    Netherlands    sweetener E 951 - aspartame undeclared on energy drink from the Netherlands    non-alcoholic beverages    food    serious    Details
2.    border rejection    03/09/2019    2019.3129    Netherlands    Salmonella (presence /25g) in ffrozen salted chicken half breasts from Brazil    poultry meat and poultry meat products    food    serious    Details
3.    information for follow-up    03/09/2019    2019.3130    Latvia    salinomycin (70412 µg/kg - ppb) unauthorised in complete feed for laying quails from Lithuania    compound feeds    feed    not serious    Details
4.    border rejection    03/09/2019    2019.3128    Spain    high content of lead (> 500 mg/kg - ppm) in manganese oxide from India    feed additives    feed    serious    Details
5.    information for attention    03/09/2019    2019.3127    Sweden    unauthorised colour rhodamine B in pickled turnips from Lebanon    fruits and vegetables    food    serious    Details
6.    alert    03/09/2019    2019.3126    Italy    mercury (2.28 mg/kg - ppm) in thawed vacuum-packed swordfish loins from Spain    fish and fish products    food    serious    Details
7.    border rejection    03/09/2019    2019.3121    Germany    dead insects (presence) in sesame seed from Uganda    nuts, nut products and seeds    food    not serious    Details
8.    information for attention    03/09/2019    2019.3124    Netherlands    aliphatic hydrocarbons (1250 mg/kg - ppm) in pork fat from Germany    feed materials    feed    not serious    Details
9.    border rejection    03/09/2019    2019.3123    Germany    sesame seeds from Uganda infested with insects (Tribolium castaneum)    nuts, nut products and seeds    food    not serious    Details
10.    border rejection    03/09/2019    2019.3122    United Kingdom    unsuitable organoleptic characteristics of frozen half cut blue swimming crab from China    crustaceans and products thereof    food    not serious    Details
11.    border rejection    02/09/2019    2019.3116    Lithuania    presence of ruminant DNA in fish meal from Thailand    feed materials    feed    not serious    Details
12.    alert    02/09/2019    2019.3120    France    Listeria monocytogenes (<10 CFU/g) in poultry sausage from Poland    poultry meat and poultry meat products    food    serious    Details
13.    alert    02/09/2019    2019.3113    Finland    sulphite and wheat undeclared on pasta salad with peppers and fennel incorrectly labelled as potato salad with spring onion and french cream from Germany    prepared dishes and snacks    food    serious    Details
14.    border rejection    02/09/2019    2019.3119    Spain    poor temperature control - rupture of the cold chain - (-14.3, -13.9;-13.6; 13.5; 14.8 °C) of frozen swordfish from Chile    fish and fish products    food    not serious    Details
15.    border rejection    02/09/2019    2019.3118    Germany    sesame seeds from Uganda infested with insects (Tribolium castaneum)    nuts, nut products and seeds    food    not serious    Details
16.    border rejection    02/09/2019    2019.3117    Bulgaria    aflatoxins (B1 = 9.4 µg/kg - ppb) in hazelnut flour from Georgia    nuts, nut products and seeds    food    serious    Details
17.    border rejection    02/09/2019    2019.3115    Germany    sesame seeds from Uganda infested with insects (Tribolium castaneum)    nuts, nut products and seeds    food    not serious    Details
18.    information for follow-up    02/09/2019    2019.3114    Italy    Listeria monocytogenes (<10 CFU/g) in frozen cocked mussels from Spain    bivalve molluscs and products thereof    food    not serious    Details
19.    alert    02/09/2019    2019.3112    France    Salmonella (presence /25g) in chilled smoked bacon from Belgium    meat and meat products (other than poultry)    food    serious    Details
20.    border rejection    02/09/2019    2019.3111    Italy    migration of chromium (1 mg/kg - ppm) from fixed blade knife from China, manufactured in Hong Kong    food contact materials    FCM    undecided    Details
21.    border rejection    02/09/2019    2019.3108    Poland    parasitic infestation with Anisakis of frozen kingklip (Genypterus hubbsi) and argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi) from Spain    fish and fish products    food    not serious    Details
22.    alert    31/08/2019    2019.3104    United Kingdom    mustard and celery undeclared on chilli cashew & peanut mix from the United Kingdom    nuts, nut products and seeds    food    serious    Details
23.    information for follow-up    30/08/2019    2019.3087    Belgium    migration of chromium (4.3 mg/kg - ppm) from egg whist from China, via Spain    food contact materials    FCM    not serious    Details
24.    alert    30/08/2019    2019.3103    Netherlands    oats undeclared on buns which were incorrect labelling as dark buns from the Netherlands    cereals and bakery products    food    serious    Details
25.    alert    30/08/2019    2019.3093    Italy    Salmonella (presence /25g) in ginger from Nigeria    herbs and spices    food    serious    Details
26.    information for attention    30/08/2019    2019.3102    Italy    too high content of sulphite (228 mg/kg - ppm) in thawed shrimp tails (Litopenaeus vannamei) from Italy, with raw material from Panama    crustaceans and products thereof    food    not serious    Details
27.    border rejection    30/08/2019    2019.3101    Malta    too high content of E 202 - potassium sorbate and E 316 - sodium erythorbate and E 223 - sodium metabisulphite unauthorised in various seasonings from South Africa    herbs and spices    food    not serious    Details
28.    information for attention    30/08/2019    2019.3099    Italy    norovirus (GII /25g) in frozen seaweed salad from Taiwan    fruits and vegetables    food    serious    Details
29.    border rejection    30/08/2019    2019.3098    Germany    aflatoxins (B1 = 65.3; Tot. = 92.4 µg/kg - ppb) in groundnut kernels from Argentina    feed materials    feed    serious    Details
30.    border rejection    30/08/2019    2019.3097    France    unauthorised substance hexaconazole (0.053 mg/kg - ppm) in green beans from Kenya    fruits and vegetables    food    undecided    Details
31.    information for follow-up    30/08/2019    2019.3095    Latvia    salinomycin (8.4 µg/kg - ppb) unauthorised in quail eggs from Latvia    eggs and egg products    food    not serious    Details
32.    alert    30/08/2019    2019.3096    France    Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis (presence /25g) in frozen chicken fillets from Poland    poultry meat and poultry meat products    food    serious    Details
33.    border rejection    30/08/2019    2019.3094    Italy    too high level of overall migration (28 mg/dm²) from plastic coated paper plates and cups from China    food contact materials    FCM    undecided    Details
34.    border rejection    30/08/2019    2019.3092    Germany    aflatoxins (B1 = 61.6 µg/kg - ppb) in blanched groundnuts for birdfeed from Argentina    feed materials    feed    serious    Details
35.    border rejection    30/08/2019    2019.3091    Netherlands    aflatoxins (B1 = 20; Tot. = 23 µg/kg - ppb) in peanuts from Egypt    nuts, nut products and seeds    food    serious    Details
36.    border rejection    30/08/2019    2019.3090    Italy    migration of chromium (3.5 mg/kg - ppm) from tea filter from China    food contact materials    FCM    undecided    Details
37.    information for follow-up    30/08/2019    2019.3089    Netherlands    Salmonella enterica ser. Gaminara (presence /25g) in pet food from Thailand    pet food    feed    not serious    Details
38.    border rejection    30/08/2019    2019.3088    Netherlands    aflatoxins (B1 = 6.5 µg/kg - ppb) in peanuts from the United States    nuts, nut products and seeds    food    serious    Details
39.    information for attention    30/08/2019    2019.3085    Czech Republic    mercury (164000 mg/kg - ppm) in food supplements from India    dietetic foods, food supplements, fortified foods    food    serious    Details
40.    border rejection    30/08/2019    2019.3086    Italy    migration of nickel (0.5 mg/kg - ppm) from chromed iron grid from Turkey    food contact materials    FCM    undecided    Details
41.    border rejection    30/08/2019    2019.3084    Belgium    aflatoxins (B1 = 49 µg/kg - ppb) in groundnuts from Bolivia    feed materials    feed    serious    Details
42.    alert    29/08/2019    2019.3077    Netherlands    prohibited substance DDT (0.37 mg/kg - ppm) in Japanese millet from Belgium, with raw material from India    feed materials    feed    undecided    Details
43.    information for follow-up    29/08/2019    2019.3080    Germany    Salmonella (present /25g) in feed for foals from Germany    feed materials    feed    not serious    Details
44.    information for attention    29/08/2019    2019.3075    Netherlands    wheat undeclared on instant pumpkin cereal from China    other food product / mixed    food    serious    Details
45.    information for follow-up    29/08/2019    2019.3083    Poland    insufficient information about freezing of frozen boned poultry thighs from Poland    poultry meat and poultry meat products    food    not serious    Details
46.    information for follow-up    29/08/2019    2019.3078    Denmark    baguettes from France infested with moulds (visible)    cereals and bakery products    food    not serious    Details
47.    alert    29/08/2019    2019.3076    Germany    too high intake of zinc (66 mg/day) from food supplement from the United States, via the United Kingdom    dietetic foods, food supplements, fortified foods    food    serious    Details
48.    border rejection    29/08/2019    2019.3082    Netherlands    Salmonella (presence /25g) in sesame seeds from Uganda    nuts, nut products and seeds    food    serious    Details
49.    information for follow-up    29/08/2019    2019.3081    Germany    high content of E 300 - ascorbic acid (1917 mg/kg - ppm) in frozen tuna loins from Spain    fish and fish products    food    not serious    Details
50.    border rejection    29/08/2019    2019.3079    Italy    migration of nickel (0.8 mg/kg - ppm) from chromed steel grid from Turkey    food contact materials    FCM    undecided    Details
51.    information for attention    29/08/2019    2019.3074    Italy    too high content of sulphite (273 mg/kg - ppm) in chilled cooked shrimps (Peaeus Vannamei) from Spain    crustaceans and products thereof    food    not serious    Details
52.    alert    28/08/2019    2019.3067    Netherlands    mercury (2.2 mg/kg - ppm) in frozen swordfish loins from Vietnam    fish and fish products    food    serious    Details
53.    border rejection    28/08/2019    2019.3073    United Kingdom    poor temperature control (-5.5 °C) of frozen Alaskan pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) from the United States    fish and fish products    food    not serious    Details
54.    alert    28/08/2019    2019.3071    Germany    polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (sum of PAH4: 115.2 µg/kg - ppb) in shredded parsley from Germany    herbs and spices    food    serious    Details
55.    alert    28/08/2019    2019.3069    Netherlands    foodborne outbreak suspected (Salmonella) to be caused by and Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis (present /25g) in eggs from Spain    eggs and egg products    food    serious    Details
56.    information for attention    28/08/2019    2019.3072    Hungary    foreign body (pieces of packaging material) in chilled minced beef from Poland, produced in Croatia    meat and meat products (other than poultry)    food    undecided    Details
57.    border rejection    28/08/2019    2019.3064    Poland    Salmonella (presence /25g) in sesame seeds from Nigeria    nuts, nut products and seeds    food    serious    Details
58.    alert    28/08/2019    2019.3070    Hungary    benzo(a)pyrene (20.73 µg/kg - ppb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (91.58 µg/kg - ppb) in cocoa powder from Slovakia    cocoa and cocoa preparations, coffee and tea    food    serious    Details
59.    alert    28/08/2019    2019.3065    Belgium    Salmonella (present /25g) in chilled chicken fillet preparation from Belgium, with raw material from the Netherlands    poultry meat and poultry meat products    food    serious    Details
60.    information for follow-up    28/08/2019    2019.3068    Romania    unauthorised irradiation of chilli powder from China, via Latvia    herbs and spices    food    not serious    Details
61.    border rejection    28/08/2019    2019.3066    United Kingdom    absence of health certificate(s) for rice noodles from China    cereals and bakery products    food    not serious    Details
62.    alert    28/08/2019    2019.3062    France    Listeria monocytogenes (570 CFU/g) in vacuum packed cooked shrimps from France    crustaceans and products thereof    food    serious    Details
63.    information for follow-up    28/08/2019    2019.3061    Germany    unauthorised substance tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (5.9 mg/kg - ppm) and unauthorised novel food ingredient cannabidiol (CBD) (155 mg/kg - ppm) in chocolate with hemp oil from the Netherlands    cocoa and cocoa preparations, coffee and tea    food    undecided    Details
64.    alert    27/08/2019    2019.3049    Netherlands    Salmonella (presence /25g) in broccoli from the Netherlands    fruits and vegetables    food    serious    Details
65.    alert    27/08/2019    2019.3051    Italy    Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium (presence /25g) in frozen ducks with offal from Hungary    poultry meat and poultry meat products    food    serious    Details
66.    alert    27/08/2019    2019.3048    Austria    Salmonella enterica ser. Brandenburg (in 2 out of 5 samples /25g), Salmonella enterica ser. London (in 1 out of 5 samples /25g), Salmonella enterica ser. Rissen (in 1 out of 5 samples /25g) and Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium monophasic (1 ,4, [5], 12:i:-) (in 1 out of 5 samples /25g) in chewing sticks from Germany    pet food    feed    serious    Details
67.    border rejection    27/08/2019    2019.3056    Poland    parasitic infestation (Trifur tortuosis and nematodes) of frozen hake from Uruguay    fish and fish products    food    not serious    Details
68.    alert    27/08/2019    2019.3054    Italy    mercury (1.46 mg/kg - ppm) in chilled vacuum packed swordfish fillet (Xiphias gladius) from Spain    fish and fish products    food    serious    Details
69.    information for attention    27/08/2019    2019.3052    Sweden    high count of Enterobacteriaceae (1550 CFU/g) in complete feed from China    compound feeds    feed    not serious    Details
70.    information for attention    27/08/2019    2019.3055    Switzerland    azaperone (10 µg/kg - ppb) and azaperol unauthorised (35 µg/kg - ppb) in chilled beef from the United States    meat and meat products (other than poultry)    food    not serious    Details
71.    alert    27/08/2019    2019.3059    Poland    Listeria monocytogenes (presence /25g) in gouda cheese from Poland    milk and milk products    food    serious    Details
72.    information for follow-up    27/08/2019    2019.3053    Germany    illegal trade (intended for human consumption) of frozen duck heads from Hungary, via Italy    poultry meat and poultry meat products    food    undecided    Details
73.    alert    27/08/2019    2019.3050    Netherlands    celery undeclared on steamed bread filled with chicken from the Netherlands mislabelled as steamed bread filled with beef    other food product / mixed    food    serious    Details
74.    alert    27/08/2019    2019.3060    France    Listeria monocytogenes (<10 CFU/g) in serrano ham from Spain    meat and meat products (other than poultry)    food    undecided    Details
75.    information for attention    27/08/2019    2019.3057    Estonia    Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium (presence /25g) in chilled pork collar from Poland    meat and meat products (other than poultry)    food    not serious    Details
76.    border rejection    27/08/2019    2019.3058    Greece    Salmonella enterica ser. Amsterdam (presence /25g) in fish meal from Mauritania    feed materials    feed    not serious    Details
77.    information for attention    27/08/2019    2019.3047    Denmark    chlorpyrifos (0.12 mg/kg - ppm) in pennywort (Centella asiatica) from Thailand    fruits and vegetables    food    undecided    Details
78.    information for attention    27/08/2019    2019.3046    Croatia    Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis (presence /25g) in chilled chicken breast fillets from Poland    poultry meat and poultry meat products    food    serious    Details
79.    alert    26/08/2019    2019.3033    United Kingdom    milk ingredient undeclared on popcorn from the United Kingdom    cereals and bakery products    food    serious    Details
80.    alert    26/08/2019    2019.3042    Italy    Listeria monocytogenes (in 2 out of 5 samples /25g) in chilled stuffed veal cold cuts ("cima") from Italy    meat and meat products (other than poultry)    food    serious    Details
81.    alert    26/08/2019    2019.3038    Germany    glass fragments in canned vegetables from France    fruits and vegetables    food    serious    Details
82.    alert    26/08/2019    2019.3045    France    atropine (47 µg/kg - ppb) and scopolamine (30 µg/kg - ppb) in organic buckwheat flour from France    cereals and bakery products    food    serious    Details
83.    information for follow-up    26/08/2019    2019.3043    Poland    spoilage of chilled pork from Poland    meat and meat products (other than poultry)    food    undecided    Details
84.    alert    26/08/2019    2019.3034    Netherlands    milk ingredient undeclared on vegan margarine from Denmark    fats and oils    food    serious    Details
85.    information for attention    26/08/2019    2019.3035    France    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (TRH+ /25g) in live lobsters from the United States    crustaceans and products thereof    food    serious    Details
86.    border rejection    26/08/2019    2019.3037    Spain    migration of formaldehyde (71 mg/kg - ppm) from bamboo pots from China    food contact materials    FCM    undecided    Details
87.    border rejection    26/08/2019    2019.3044    United Kingdom    dead insects and live insects in glucosamine sulphate from China    dietetic foods, food supplements, fortified foods    food    not serious    Details
88.    alert    26/08/2019    2019.3041    Italy    mercury (1.4 mg/kg - ppm) in chilled swordfish fillets from Spain    fish and fish products    food    serious    Details
89.    information for attention    26/08/2019    2019.3036    Denmark    chlorpyrifos (0.017 mg/kg - ppm) in coriander roots from Thailand    fruits and vegetables    food    undecided    Details
90.    alert    23/08/2019    2019.3015    Portugal    dimethoate (0.04 mg/kg - ppm) and unauthorised substance omethoate (0.039 mg/kg - ppm) in peaches from Spain    fruits and vegetables    food    serious    Details
91.    information for follow-up    23/08/2019    2019.3032    Czech Republic    too high content of sulphite (84.8 mg/kg - ppm) in and insufficient labelling (only E number mentioned for sulphite) of pickled onions from the Czech Republic    fruits and vegetables    food    not serious    Details
92.    alert    23/08/2019    2019.3025    Italy    mercury (2.1 mg/kg - ppm) in little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus) from Greece    fish and fish products    food    serious    Details
93.    border rejection    23/08/2019    2019.3030    Germany    aflatoxins (B1 = 27.2; Tot. = 37 µg/kg - ppb) in pistachios from the United States, dispatched from Turkey    nuts, nut products and seeds    food    serious    Details
94.    information for attention    23/08/2019    2019.3026    Sweden    glass fragments in pasta sauce in glass jars from Italy    soups, broths, sauces and condiments    food    serious    Details
95.    alert    23/08/2019    2019.3013    Belgium    gluten, soya and fish undeclared on andalouse sauce from Belgium mislabelled as banzai sauce    soups, broths, sauces and condiments    food    serious    Details
96.    information for attention    23/08/2019    2019.3031    Denmark    unauthorised substance prothiofos (10 mg/kg - ppm) in Chinese broccoli from Thailand    fruits and vegetables    food    serious    Details
97.    alert    23/08/2019    2019.3020    Poland    Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis (presence /25g) in chilled chicken meat from Poland    poultry meat and poultry meat products    food    serious    Details
98.    information for follow-up    23/08/2019    2019.3028    Germany    too high content of zinc (435 mg/kg - ppm), of selenium (1.56 mg/kg - ppm) and of manganese (291 mg/kg - ppm) and high content of copper (57.8 mg/kg - ppm) in supplementary feed for fattening pigs from Germany    feed materials    feed    not serious    Details
99.    border rejection    23/08/2019    2019.3029    Poland    improper certified analytical report (result exceeds legal limit for aflatoxin B1) for brown rice from Pakistan    cereals and bakery products    food    undecided    Details
100.    border rejection    23/08/2019    2019.3016    Sweden    dimethoate (0.016 mg/kg - ppm) and unauthorised substance omethoate (0.036 mg/kg - ppm) in green chili from Uganda    fruits and vegetables    food    serious    Details
[*/quote*]


Das mit der Lebenserwartung der heutigen Kinder kann man knicken. Bei der Giftbelastung werden die höchstens noch 60.
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Julian

  • Boltbender
  • Jr. Member
  • *
  • Posts: 820
Re: Nahrungsergänzungmittel aus Indien besteht zu 1/6 aus Quecksilber
« Reply #2 on: September 03, 2019, 08:34:28 PM »

Diese indischen Schweine soll der Teufel holen! Das ist alles noch weit schlimmer als befürchtet.


Schon im April 2019 hat die Verbraucher-Schutzstelle Niedersachsen vor den indischen Giftmischern gewarnt:

http://verbraucherschutzstelle.org/Bruhat.htm

[*quote*]
Verbraucher Schutzstelle Niedersachsen

Warnung vor indischem Nahrungsergänzungsmittel

BRUHAT VATA CHINTAMANI RASA

Gefahr durch enorme Quecksilberkonzentration!



8.4.2019: Die tschechische Aufsichtsbehörde für Landwirtschaft und Lebensmittel (SZPI) warnt die Verbraucher eindringlich vor dem Verbrauch von

BRUHAT VATA CHINTAMANI RASA

mit einer enormen Menge an Quecksilber und anderen Verunreinigungen (Blei, Nickel, Arsen). Der zulässige Quecksilbergehalt für Nahrungsergänzungsmittel beträgt 0,1 mg / kg. Das Produkt enthielt insgesamt 72 200 mg Quecksilber pro kg-Probe.

SZPI erhielt Informationen über ein gefährliches Produkt vom Medizinischen Institut in Ostrava, das auf Kundenwunsch eine Laboranalyse durchführte.

Das Produkt wird über das Internetauktionshaus eBay (https://www.ebay.com), und Amazon Indien (https://www.amazon.in). angeboten. Es ist zudem nicht ausgeschlossen, dass es zusätzlich in weiteren Online-Shops international angeboten wird.

Hersteller ist das indische Unternehmen

Shree Dhootapapeshwar Ltd.
135 Nanubhai Desai Road
Khetwadi, Mumbai 400004
Maharashtra, Indien
Tel.: +91 22 2388 1308
Tel. +91 1800 2 29874
healthcare@sdlindia.com

Das Produkt sollte auf keinen Fall konsumiert werden.
[*/quote*]




Die Warnung der tschechischen Behörde:

https://www.szpi.gov.cz/clanek/szpi-varuje-pred-zdravi-ohrozujicimi-doplnky-stravy-z-indie-nabizenymi-pres-ebay-s-cca-1-5-milion-x-prekrocenym-limitem-pro-obsah-rtuti.aspx

[*quote*]
SZPI varuje před zdraví ohrožujícími doplňky stravy z Indie nabízenými přes eBay s cca 1,5 milion x překročeným limitem pro obsah rtuti
30. 08. 2019
 

Státní zemědělská a potravinářská inspekce (SZPI) důrazně varuje spotřebitele před nákupem potravin a zejména doplňků stravy na internetu z neověřených zdrojů.

Inspektoři SZPI objednali prostřednictvím internetové aukční síně společnosti eBay dva doplňky stravy: (1.) Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa STANDARD Quality Suvaranakalpa, 10 tablet a (2.) Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa PREMIUM Quality Suvaranakalpa, 10 tablet. Výrobcem je dle etikety indická společnost Shree Dhootapapeshwar Ltd., 135, Nanubhai Desai Road, Khetwani, Mumbai 400 004, Maharashtra, Indie, prodávající subjekt na www.ebay.com figuroval pod označením „saurabh-enterprises“, jde o společnost: „saurabh sonavane, navdurga rahivasi seva sangh, gandhi nagar, galli no-6 Near shiv sena shaka, kurar village, mumbai - 400097, Maharashtra, India“.

Laboratorní rozbor u předmětných doplňků stravy prokázal přítomnost rtuti ve zcela ojedinělé výši: v případě produktu Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa STANDARD Quality rozbor potvrdil přítomnost rtuti ve výši 164000 mg/kg (rtuť tak představovala 16,4% obsahu výrobku), v případě produktu Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa PREMIUM Quality rozbor potvrdil přítomnost rtuti ve výši 76500 mg/kg (rtuť tak představovala 7,7% obsahu výrobku). Limit pro maximální přípustnou přítomnost rtuti stanovuje evropský předpis na 0,10 mg/kg.

SZPI vložila informaci do evropského systému varování před nebezpečnými potravinami RASFF a požádá o stažení nabídky předmětných výrobků z aukční síně eBay.

Inspektoři SZPI odebrali vzorek na základě podnětu, jehož prostřednictvím Inspekce varovala veřejnost již v tiskové zprávě ze dne 8. 4. 2019.

Zpracoval: Mgr. Pavel Kopřiva - tiskový mluvčí, tel.: +420 542 426 633   



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https://www.szpi.gov.cz/SCRIPT/ViewImage.aspx?id=23413&ext=.jpg

[*/quote*]





Google-Trans Englisch:

[*quote*]
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    Homepage Press Releases PR 2019 CAFIA warns against health-threatening food supplements from India offered via eBay with about 1.5 million times the mercury content limit exceeded

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CAFIA warns against health-threatening food supplements from India offered via eBay with about 1.5 million times the mercury content limit exceeded
30. 08. 201X

 

The Czech Agriculture and Food Inspection Authority (CAFIA) strongly warns consumers against buying food and especially food supplements on the Internet from unauthorized sources.

CAFIA inspectors ordered two food supplements through eBay's Internet Auction Room: (1) Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa STANDARD Quality Suvaranakalpa, 10 tablets and (2.) Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa PREMIUM Quality Suvaranakalpa, 10 tablets. According to the label, the manufacturer is Indian company Shree Dhootapapeshwar Ltd., 135, Nanubhai Desai Road, Khetwani, Mumbai 400 004, Maharashtra, India, selling entity at www.ebay.com under the designation "saurabh-enterprises", it is: "saurabh sonavane, navdurga rahivasi seva sangh, gandhi nagar, galli no-6 Near shiv sena shaka, kurar village, mumbai - 400097, Maharashtra, India ".

The laboratory analysis of the food supplements in question showed the presence of mercury in a very rare amount: in the case of Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa STANDARD Quality the analysis confirmed the presence of mercury of 164000 mg / kg (mercury thus represented 16.4% of the product) Chintamani Rasa PREMIUM Quality analysis confirmed the presence of mercury of 76500 mg / kg (mercury thus represented 7.7% of the product content). The limit for the maximum permitted mercury presence is set by the European regulation at 0.10 mg / kg.

CAFIA entered the information into the European Dangerous Food Warning System RASFF and asks to withdraw the offer of the products in question from the eBay auction house.

CAFIA inspectors took a sample based on a complaint through which the CAFIA warned the public in a press release dated April 8, 2019.

Prepared by: Mgr. Pavel Kopřiva - spokesperson, tel .: +420 542 426 633


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[*/quote*]



Google-Trans Deutsch:

[*quote*]
CAFIA warnt vor gesundheitsgefährdenden Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln aus Indien, die über eBay angeboten werden und deren Quecksilbergehalt 1,5 Millionen Mal überschritten wurde
30. 08. 201X

Die tschechische Aufsichtsbehörde für Landwirtschaft und Lebensmittel (CAFIA) warnt die Verbraucher nachdrücklich vor dem Kauf von Lebensmitteln und insbesondere Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln im Internet aus nicht genehmigten Quellen.

CAFIA-Inspektoren bestellten zwei Nahrungsergänzungsmittel über den Internet-Auktionsraum von eBay: (1) Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa-Standardqualität Suvaranakalpa, 10 Tabletten und (2.) Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa-Premiumqualität Suvaranakalpa, 10 Tabletten. Laut dem Label ist der Hersteller das indische Unternehmen Shree Dhootapapeshwar Ltd., 135, Nanubhai Desai Road, Khetwani, Mumbai 400 004, Maharashtra, Indien, Verkaufseinheit bei www.ebay.com unter der Bezeichnung "saurabh-enterprises", es ist: "saurabh" Sonavane, Navdurga Rahivasi Seva Sangh, Gandhi Nagar, Galli No-6 In der Nähe von Shiv Sena Shaka, Kurar Dorf, Mumbai - 400097, Maharashtra, Indien ".

Die Laboranalyse der fraglichen Nahrungsergänzungsmittel ergab das Vorhandensein von Quecksilber in einer sehr seltenen Menge: Im Fall von Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa STANDARD Quality bestätigte die Analyse das Vorhandensein von 164000 mg Quecksilber / kg (Quecksilber machte somit 16,4% des Produkts aus). Die Qualitätsanalyse von Chintamani Rasa PREMIUM bestätigte das Vorhandensein von 76500 mg Quecksilber / kg (Quecksilber entsprach somit 7,7% des Produktgehalts). Der Grenzwert für das maximal zulässige Vorhandensein von Quecksilber ist in der europäischen Verordnung auf 0,10 mg / kg festgelegt.

CAFIA hat die Informationen in das Europäische Warnsystem für gefährliche Lebensmittel RASFF eingegeben und bittet darum, das Angebot der betreffenden Produkte aus dem eBay-Auktionshaus zurückzuziehen.

CAFIA-Inspektoren nahmen eine Stichprobe auf der Grundlage einer Beschwerde, mit der die CAFIA die Öffentlichkeit in einer Pressemitteilung vom 8. April 2019 gewarnt hatte.

Vorbereitet von: Mgr. Pavel Kopřiva - Sprecher, Tel .: +420 542 426 633
[*/quote*]



Google ist eine so dämliche Scheiße, es spottet jeder Beschreibung.

Der Originaltext lautet:

[*quote*]
SZPI varuje před zdraví ohrožujícími doplňky stravy z Indie nabízenými přes eBay s cca 1,5 milion x překročeným limitem pro obsah rtuti
30. 08. 2019
[...]
[*/quote*]

Aber Google fälscht! Google fälscht bei den Übersetzungen reproduzierbar, auch in mehreren Sprachen, und macht aus dem Datum 30.8.2019 das Datum 30.8.2018. Etwas dermaßen dreistes und idiotisches findet man wirklich selten.


Von Google gefälschte englische Übersetzung:

[*quote*]
CAFIA warns against health-threatening food supplements from India offered via eBay with about 1.5 million times the mercury content limit exceeded
30. 08. 2018

[...]
[*/quote*]


Von Google gefälschte deutsche Übersetzung:

[*quote*]
AFIA warnt vor gesundheitsgefährdenden Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln aus Indien, die über eBay angeboten werden und deren Quecksilbergehalt 1,5 Millionen Mal überschritten wurde
30. 08. 2018
[...]
[*/quote*]


Perverserweise ist das an einer zweiten Stelle vorkommende Datum NICHT gefälscht:

[*quote*]
CAFIA inspectors took a sample based on a complaint through which the CAFIA warned the public in a press release dated April 8, 2019.
[*/quote*]

[*quote*]
CAFIA-Inspektoren nahmen eine Stichprobe auf der Grundlage einer Beschwerde, mit der die CAFIA die Öffentlichkeit in einer Pressemitteilung vom 8. April 2019 gewarnt hatte.
[*/quote*]


Daß Google Namen fälscht, war bereits bekannt. Aber daß Google auch Zahlen fälscht... Man sollte Google auf der Stelle zerschlagen, auflösen, und die gesamte Führungsetage geschlossen für die nächsten 100 Jahre im Knast einbunkern. Es reicht!



Auch eine andere Führungsgruppe gehört in den Knast: die von Ebay. Die Gifttabletten werden bei Ebay angeboten. Unter anderem hier:


https://www.ebay.com/sch/i.html?_nkw=bruhat%20vata

[*quote*]
    Dhootapapeshwar Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa Premium 10 tablet with free shipping
    Brand New
    $32.70
    From India
    Buy It Now
    Free International Shipping
    Watch

Dhootapapeshwar Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa Premium Quality Suvarnakalpa 30 Tab
Brand New
$65.99
From India
Buy It Now
Free International Shipping
Only 1 left!
1 Watching
Watch

Dhootapapeshwar Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa Premium Quality Suvarnakalpa 30 tab
Brand New
$53.00 to $195.00
From India
Buy It Now
Free International Shipping

Dhootapapeshwar Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa Premium 10 tablet with free shipping
Brand New
$32.70
From India
Buy It Now
Free International Shipping
Watch
[*/quote*]


Wie kann Ebay es wagen, diesen lebensgefährliche Scheiße anzubieten!?

Ebay ist hier in der Haftung, und das in vollem Umfang.

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Julian

  • Boltbender
  • Jr. Member
  • *
  • Posts: 820
Die indischen Giftmischer wissen genau, was sie tun. Hier die Mengenangabe:
« Reply #3 on: September 03, 2019, 09:00:29 PM »

Die indischen Giftmischer wissen genau, was sie tun. Hier die Mengenangabe:

http://sdlindia.com/media/attachment/file/b/r/bruhat_vata_chintamani_rasa_tablet_pre_.pdf

Zitat:
[*quote*]
BRUHAT VATA CHINTAMANI RASA (Tablet)

Average weight:     157mg  +/- 7,5%

Mercury (Hg):         12 - 17 mg

[*/quote*]


Das sind bei dieser Art Tabletten 7,6 bis 10,8 Gewichtsprozent Quecksilber!


Das indische Giftmischergesindel behauptet trotzdem volldreist, seine Giftmischung sei ungiftig und harmlos:

http://sdlindia.com/media/attachment/file/a/c/acute-toxicity-of-bruhat-vata-chintamani-rasa.pdf

[*quote*]
Abstract Report
ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF BRUHAT VATA CHINTAMANI RASA IN MICE
Shree Dhootapapeshwar Ayurvedic Research Foundation (SDARF), Panvel, Raigad,
Maharashtra-410206.

ABSTRACT
Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa in
mice.
Material and Method: In this study Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa 406.5 mg/kg was administered orally for
14 days.

Result: The oral administration of Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa at the highest dose resulted in no
mortalities or evidence of adverse effects implying that Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa is non toxic.


Throughout 14 days of the treatment no changes in behavioral pattern and body weight of mice in both
control and treatment groups. There was no cynosis, blanching or Inflammation of nasal tips, paws, eyes,
ears & tail. Also, No abnormal secretion from mouth, eyes & nose was seen.
Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that, the oral administration of Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa did
not produce any significant toxic effect in mice
Keywords: Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa, Acute Toxicity, body weight, cyanosis, non-toxic etc.

No part of this publication can be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, print or by
other mechanical process, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system
without permission in writing from the Managing Director of Shree Dhootapapeshwar Ltd.

[*/quote*]





Die indischen Giftmischer meinen auch noch, das Urheberrecht für ihre Mordversuche mißbrauchen zu dürfen:


http://sdlindia.com/media/attachment/file/c/h/chronic-toxicity-of-bruhat-vat-chintamani.pdf

[*quote*]
Abstract Report
PATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF REPEATED DOSE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF BRUHAT
VATA CHINTAMANI IN WISTAR RATS.
Institute for Toxicological Studies (INTOX), Shivaji Nagar Pune, Maharashtra -411 005.
Shree Dhootapapeshwar Ayurvedic Research Foundation (SDARF), Panvel, Raigad,
Maharashtra-410206.

ABSTRACT
Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa is an Ayurvedic formulation, indicated for
the treatment of Vata Dosha imbalance diseases such as paralysis, hemiplegia, facial palsy, tremors etc. This
Ayurvedic formulation is composed of heavy metal ingredients.
Objective: To study pathological evaluation of repeated dose of Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa (BVC) in rats
Method: Two treatment group animals were given with Therapeutic Dose (TD) and twice of Therapeutic
Dose (2TD) for consecutive days, which were 1 and 2 times the proposed human therapeutic dose (HTD).
The 3rd group or control group, receive Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC). The rats were fasted overnight
prior to the terminal necropsy and their body weights were recorded. Blood samples were obtained for
laboratory investigations from all the animals before necropsy. Weights of certain organs were recorded.
Histopathological evaluation was performed on brain, heart, kidney, lung, spleen, liver, adrenals, uterus and
ovaries in all rats from all groups.
Results: Animals were evaluated using functional observation battery (FOB), and no remarkable changes
were observed in gross and clinical symptoms throughout the study period. Body weights, feed, water intake
in all treated animals were not significant as compare to control group animals. In present study no treatment
related gross pathological changes were observed in animals from different treatment groups.
Conclusion: Based on these outcomes of the present chronic study, the NOEL (No Observed Effect Level)
for BVC in Wistar rats could be concluded at that of doubled of human dose.
Keywords: Bruhat Vata Chintamani Rasa, Heavy metals, Ayurvedic Formulation,Chronic toxicity study, No
observed effect level (NOEL) etc

No part of this publication can be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, print or by
other mechanical process, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system
without permission in writing from the Managing Director of Shree Dhootapapeshwar Ltd.

[*/quote*]
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Julian

  • Boltbender
  • Jr. Member
  • *
  • Posts: 820
Wie Vollidioten für Giftmischer eine Studie in den Sand setzen
« Reply #4 on: September 03, 2019, 09:26:33 PM »

Wie Vollidioten für Giftmischer eine Studie in den Sand setzen.

Erstens: Der Test wird durchgeführt an Ratten. Ratten reagieren aber anders als Menschen!

"Oral acute toxicity study of test drug was carried at the limit dose of 2000 mg/kg orally in rats."


Zweitens: Der Bestandteil ist, SO WIRD BEHAUPTET ("is said to be mercury sulphide"), Quecksilber-Sulfid. Quecksilber-Sulfid eine Ungiftigkeit zu bescheinigen ist ein Verbrechen.

[*quote*]
Rasasindura is one among such mercurial preparations widely used by Ayurveda practitioners. Pharmaceutical processing of Rasasindura involves treating purified mercury with purified sulphur and juices of Aloe vera (Linn.) Burm. f. to form black sulphide of mercury, which is further treated with gradual, intermittent heat to transform into more stable form, i.e. cinnabar by Kupipakwa method [4]. Kupipakwa is a specialized heating system, i.e. gradual, intermittent heat by vertical electrical-muffle furnace. Rasasindura is said to be mercury sulphide, associated with several organic macro-molecules derived from processing with plant extracts [5]. Toxic effects of purified mercury were said to be neutralized in the presence of purified sulphur [6]. As per the classics, Rasasindura is administered with the adjuvant such as Guduchi ghana (solidified aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia Will.) [7]. Rasasindura has unique properties to pacify diseases such as diabetes, fistula, fever, lack of appetite, anaemia, oedema etc.; and it is considered equivalent to the elixir, which is known to overcome death [4,7]. Since reports of toxicity evaluation of this classical preparation (along with the adjuvant) was not available during extensive literature review, it was thought worthwhile to undertake the detailed toxicity assessment in albino rats.
[*/quote*]


http://www.ijpsonline.com/articles/toxicological-studies-of-rasasindura-an-ayurvedic-formulation-3370.html

[*quote*]
Scientific Publication of the Indian Pharmaceutical Association

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Research Paper
Toxicological Studies of Rasasindura, an Ayurvedic Formulation

R. A. Gokarn*, M. B. Nariya1, B. J. Patgiri2 and P. K. Prajapati2
Division of Ayurveda, Centre for Integrative Medicine and Research, Manipal University, Manipal-576 104, India
1Pharmacology Laboratory, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi-110076, India
2Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, All India Institute of Ayurveda, New Delhi-110076, India

*Corresponding Author:
    R. A. Gokarn
    Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana
    Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College Hospital and RC, Salod (H), Wardha-442 001
    E-mail: rohit_gn@yahoo.com

Date of Submission    16 February 2016
Date of Revision    01 February 2017
Date of Acceptance    02 June 2017
Indian J Pharm Sci 2017;79(4):633-640    

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms

DOI: 10.4172/pharmaceutical-sciences.1000272
Abstract

Rasasindura is a unique, Ayurvedic mercurial preparation widely used by practitioners.

Thi investigation is an attempt to perform acute and chronic oral toxicity evaluation of Rasasindura along with an adjuvant Guduchi Ghana (solidified aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia Will.) in rats. Oral acute toxicity study of test drug was carried at the limit dose of 2000 mg/kg orally in rats.

For chronic toxicity, Rasasindura with adjuvant was administered at therapeutic equivalent dose (45 mg/kg, orally), therapeutic equivalent dose×5 (225 mg/kg, orally), therapeutic equivalent dose×10 (450 mg/kg, orally) for 90 days and an additional recovery group of therapeutic equivalent dose×10 for 30-day observation after the treatment period. Acute toxicity result showed that drug did not produce any signs and symptoms of toxicity or mortality up to an oral dose of 2000 mg/kg in rats. Chronic toxicity results showed that Rasasindura, even at a level as high as therapeutic equivalent dose×10 level, had no significant effect whatsoever on the ponderal and hematological parameters. Although the drug produced mild to moderate adverse changes (in kidney, liver, intestine, and stomach) at therapeutic equivalent dose×10 dose level, equivalent of which are unlikely to be ever employed in a clinical trial. The observed changes were not seen at the lower dose levels as well as in the recovery study. Hence, it is suggested that the Rasasindura, along with the adjuvant prepared as per the customary method, is safe for consumption at the therapeutic dose level.
Keywords

Rasasindura, Guduchi ghana, Tinospora cordifolia, bhasma, toxicity

Ayurveda, the traditional system of Indian medicine, has enriched the historical background and is one of the great living traditions. Use of processed metals, minerals, and mercurial-processed herbs as a medicament has been an integral part of Ayurvedic practice. These metallic preparations have unique process of preparation, involving Shodhana (purification and/or detoxification) and Marana (incineration and/or calcination). Practitioners developed these methods to detoxify the raw material by chemical transformations and thus modify the properties of materials to enhance therapeutic potential [1,2]. Their extensive use of these medicaments since more than a millennium without any reports of any untoward events can be considered as a testimony to their safety; but no objective-verifiable data exists to support such claims. Pre-clinical studies of Ayurvedic drugs provide scientific basis for their traditional use and to prove that they are safe and efficacious [3].

Rasasindura is one among such mercurial preparations widely used by Ayurveda practitioners. Pharmaceutical processing of Rasasindura involves treating purified mercury with purified sulphur and juices of Aloe vera (Linn.) Burm. f. to form black sulphide of mercury, which is further treated with gradual, intermittent heat to transform into more stable form, i.e. cinnabar by Kupipakwa method [4]. Kupipakwa is a specialized heating system, i.e. gradual, intermittent heat by vertical electrical-muffle furnace. Rasasindura is said to be mercury sulphide, associated with several organic macro-molecules derived from processing with plant extracts [5]. Toxic effects of purified mercury were said to be neutralized in the presence of purified sulphur [6]. As per the classics, Rasasindura is administered with the adjuvant such as Guduchi ghana (solidified aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia Will.) [7]. Rasasindura has unique properties to pacify diseases such as diabetes, fistula, fever, lack of appetite, anaemia, oedema etc.; and it is considered equivalent to the elixir, which is known to overcome death [4,7]. Since reports of toxicity evaluation of this classical preparation (along with the adjuvant) was not available during extensive literature review, it was thought worthwhile to undertake the detailed toxicity assessment in albino rats.

Materials and Methods

Aloe vera and T. cordifolia were collected from the botanical garden of Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. The plant materials were authenticated and voucher specimens of each submitted to Pharmacognosy laboratory of Institute. Rasasindura and Guduchi ghana (solidified aqueous extract of T. cordifolia) were prepared in Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar; and SOPs were prepared and documented [4,8]. All chemicals used in the study were of analytical grade.

Experimental animals

Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200±20 g body weight were used for the study. The animals were maintained under ideal husbandry conditions in terms of standard conditions of temperature (23±2°), relative humidity (50 to 60%), and exposed to 12 h light-and-dark cycles. All animals were exposed to the same environmental conditions and were maintained on standard diet and drinking water ad libitum. The experimental protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (IAEC/10/2012/08, Ph.D.) as per the guideline of Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals, India.

Dose selection

As per the classical guideline, the therapeutic dose of Rasasindura is 125 mg/d [9] and should be administered with the adjuvant as solidified aqueous extract of T. cordifolia (375 mg/d). Hence, total dose of drug with adjuvant is 500 mg/d. The suitable dose for rats was calculated by referring to table of Paget and Barnes [10] and was found to be 45 mg/kg rat (considered as therapeutic equivalent dose, TED). The test drug along with adjuvant was administered orally with the help of cannula, in the form of suspension in honey and distilled water solution.

Acute toxicity study

Young, healthy, nulliparous, and non-pregnant Wistar-strain albino, female rats were selected and acclimatized for seven days before the experiment. The Rasasindura along with adjuvant was orally administered at limit dose of 2000 mg/kg to overnight fasted female rats in sequential manner as per the OECD 425 guideline [11]. The rats were observed closely for behavioural changes, signs and symptoms of toxicity, and mortality continuously for the first six hours; and thereafter, periodically up to 14 d. The body weight of each rat was noted on the last day and the rats were sacrificed. The abdomen was opened through mid-line incision to record the autopsy changes, followed by dissecting the important organs for histopathological changes.

Chronic toxicity study

The chronic toxicity study was carried out followed by standard guideline with modification as per experimental need [12,13]. Rats were randomized into six groups of six rats in each with three males and three females. Group (I) was kept as control group, received vehicle as honey solution in distilled water (5 ml/kg, orally). Group (II) to (IV) were administered with test drug Rasasindura along with adjuvant at TED (45 mg/kg, orally), TED×5 (225 mg/kg, orally), and TED×10 (450 mg/kg, orally), respectively. The suspensions of test drugs were administered orally once-a-day for 90 consecutive days in main study. Additional six animals were kept in satellite control group (V) and in the recovery TED×10 treated group (VI) for observation after the treatment period, for reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects. The duration of post-treatment period was fixed as 30 d (total of 120 d, including 90 d treatment period and 30 d recovery period). All the animals were dosed with constant dose volume of 5 ml/kg, orally.

The rats were observed daily, carefully for any overt and apparent signs and symptoms of toxicity. The bodyweight change of an individual rat was noted initially and thereafter weekly during the study period. At the end of experimental periods, blood was withdrawn by the retro-orbital puncture under light-ether anaesthesia using capillary tube for estimation of serum biochemical and haematological parameters. The body weight of each rat was noted on last day and rats were sacrificed. The abdomen was opened through mid-line incision to record the autopsy changes followed by dissecting out the important organs.

Haematological analysis was performed using an automatic haematological analyser (Swelab, Sweden). The parameters were total red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils percentage (%N), lymphocyte percentage (%L), eosinophil’s percentage, monocyte percentage, and platelet count (PC).

Serum bio-chemical parameters were carried out using fully automated biochemical random access analyser (BS-200, Lilac Medicare Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai). The parameters were blood glucose [14], urea [15], creatinine [16], total cholesterol [17], HDL-cholesterol [18], triglyceride [19], VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, total protein [20], albumin, globulin [21], alkaline phosphatase [22], SGOT [23], SGPT [24], uric acid [25], direct bilirubin [24], total bilirubin [26], and serum calcium [27].

Bone-marrow smear from the femur bone was prepared using standard procedure. All the important internal organs were carefully dissected namely brain, pituitary, liver, heart, thymus, spleen, kidney, lung, stomach, intestine, testis, prostate, seminal vesicle, uterus, ovary, adrenal gland, trachea, aorta, lymph node, and skin. After noting for any signs of gross lesion and ponderal changes of major organs, all were transferred to 10% phosphate buffered formalin solution for fixation and later on subjected to dehydrating, wax embedding, sectioning, and staining with haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) for histological evaluation by light microscopy. The slides were viewed under trinocular research Carl-Zeiss’s microscope at various magnifications to note down the changes in the microscopic features of the tissues.

Statistical analysis

The data is expressed as mean±standard error of mean for six rats per experimental group. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean values of quantitative variables among the groups, followed by Dunnet’s multiple t-test for unpaired data to determine significant difference between groups at P<0.05.
Results and Discussion

Acute toxicity study of test drug was carried out to record immediate adverse signs and symptoms of drug in female rats at dose levels that are several folds higher than the therapeutic equivalent dose. Administration of Rasasindura along with adjuvant did not affect any behavioural changes and other parameters observed during the acute toxicity test in female rats. No signs and symptoms of toxicity and mortality were observed up to oral dose of 2000 mg/kg of test drug in rats. Further, drug did not affect the cytoarchitecture of major organs like heart, kidney, liver, uterus, and ovary which suggest that LD50 value may be higher than 2000 mg/kg by oral route. As per UN classification, any substance, which has oral LD50 of more than 2000 mg/kg is considered as low hazard potential and categorized as UN 6.1 PG III [28]. Thus as per the above criterion Rasasindura along with adjuvant can be categorized as substances with low health hazard potential (Class 4 of GHS and UN 6.1 PG III).

There were no behavioural changes observed in Rasasindura treated groups during the course of chronic toxicity study. No symptoms of toxicity and mortality was observed in treated groups at TED×10, TED×5, and TED dose levels in the main study and TED×10 in the recovery study. Normal body weight gain was observed in control rats during main study (90 d) as well as recovery study (120 d). An increase in body weight was found in Rasasindura treated groups at all dose levels. Changes in body weight are an important factor to monitor the health of an animal. Loss of body weight is usually the first sign indicating the onset of an adverse effect. The dose, at which body weight loss is by 10% or more, is considered to be a toxic dose, irrespective of whether or not it is accompanied by any other changes [29]. The percentage change in body weight pattern in test drug treated groups did not differ significantly from the changes observed in the control groups, which suggest the absence of serious toxic effect of Rasasindura during chronic administration in rats.

Out of the nine organs for which relative weights were recorded (Table 1), Rasasindura treated group showed significant decrease in relative weight of liver in TED treated group in comparison to the normal control, whereas in other dose levels the changes were non-significant. A significant increase was observed in relative weight of testis at TED, uterus weight at TED×5, and kidney and testis at TED×10 dose levels; however, the changes were almost reversed in the drug treated recovery group at TED×10 dose level. Normally, decrease in the weight of an organ is indicative of loss of tissue mass in that organ, exception being the secretory organs in which the decrease in weight sometimes is seen along with the increased activity. In this case, the increase in the weight of reproductive organs may be indicative of stimulation of hormone secretion. In the present study, there were no remarkable changes observed in the relative weight of the organs at higher doses of test drugs. Hence, it may be, understood that the drugs do not tend to produce any serious toxic effect on the relative weight of the important internal organs in chronic toxicity studies.
Relative weight    Control group    Drug treated groups    R Control group    Recovery TED x 10
TED    TED×5    TED×10
Liver (g/100 g)    3.57±0.17    3.12±0.10*    3.27±0.06    3.26±0.09    2.72±0.07    2.99±0.11
Heart (mg/100 g)    280.41±8.88    266.04±5.36    289.12±9.69    281.65±6.78    240.44±8.42    269.80±12.81
Kidney (mg/100 g)    720.10±26.28    675.17±19.26    766.08±30.88    804.74±25.63*    691.42±18.42    714.44±10.76
Spleen (mg/100 g)    194.50±9.32    173.56±8.14    206.28±18.26    189.69±10.14    158.85±7.44    179.45±8.87
Thymus (mg/100 g)    172.54±6.73    165.65±5.21    167.91±7.71    158.91±7.60    145.56±10.91    146.15±12.89
Testis (g/100 g)    648.26±28.37    818.50±41.74*    684.25±123.10    868.99±45.83    792.01±61.68    661.95±39.86
Prostate (mg/100 g)    146.97±21.19    128.77±11.70    129.53±9.04    180.36±7.43    145.07±24.68    167.09±16.38
S. vesicle (mg/100 g)    504.08±95.14    504.55±55.60    481.70±32.76    527.32±47.38    421.09±62.60    477.01±58.91
Uterus (mg/100 g)    230.03±17.72    215.88±28.98    323.70±26.45*    222.81±21.52    197.89±8.69    178.48±9.04

The results are expressed as mean±SEM, where n=6. SEM: Standard error of mean. *P<0.05, compared with control group

Table 1: Effect of test drugs on relative weight of organs of rats recorded during chronic toxicity study.

Analysis of the effects of Rasasindura on haematological parameters (Table 2) revealed Non-significant increase in WBC count at each of the dose level studied in the main study; however, contrary effect was observed in the recovery phase in the drug treated group in comparison to the control group. However all the values were within the normal range [30]. The test drug at all dose level did not affect the RBC related parameters. This clearly indicates that the test drug did not affect the cellular and non-cellular elements of the blood to significant extent. Further, with the discontinuation of the drug, most of the values were similar to that observed in the recovery control group, which suggests that the drug is devoid of any serious haematological toxicity, even at higher dose on repeated administration.
Hematological Parameters    Control group    Drug treated groups    R control group    Recovery TED×10
TED    TED×5    TED×10
RBC (106/ml)    7.55±0.08    7.69±0.17    7.41±0.10    7.86±0.22    8.67±0.26    8.74±0.26
Hemoglobin (g/dl)    13.85±0.34    13.95±0.21    13.60±0.16    14.00±0.21    15.38±0.24    15.38±0.33
PCV%    42.18±0.58    42.48±0.95    41.40±0.43    44.41±1.01    48.76±1.22    49.60±1.30
MCV (fl)    55.86±0.41    55.25±0.47    55.84±0.48    56.54±0.75    56.32±1.18    56.75±0.80
MCH (pg/red cell)    18.35±0.32    18.15±0.24    18.35±0.27    17.84±0.37    17.38±0.53    17.63±0.38
MCHC (g/dl)    32.81±0.49    32.87±0.25    32.84±0.24    31.58±0.33    30.84±0.42    31.03±0.34
WBC (103/ml)    6816.66±630.03    8114.28±1217.61    8114.28±1068.91    7585.71±570.47    7020.00±575.67    6233.33±276.48
Neutrophil%    24.50±4.32    28.42±5.47    19.57±2.32    17.14±1.79    23.00±4.93    23.66±2.10
Lymphocyte %    71.66±4.27    66.57±5.81    76.85±2.13    79.42±2.04    75.80±5.06    72.00±2.51
Eosinophil%    2.33±0.21    2.71±0.28    2.00±0.21    2.00±0.21    2.60±0.24    2.33±0.21
Monocyte%    1.50±0.22    2.28±0.28    1.57±0.20    1.42±0.20    2.60±0.24    2.00±0.36
PLT (103/ml)    1152.83±54.10    1267.57±47.57    1154.00±62.82    1267.85±51.82    1115.80±45.11    1057.50±83.48

The results are expressed as mean±SEM, where n=6. SEM: Standard error of mean

Table 2: Effect of test drugs on hematological parameters in rats recorded during chronic toxicity study.

The effects of Rasasindura on serum bio-chemical parameters are presented in Table 3. Out of eighteen parameters studied, significant decrease was observed in blood glucose level at TED and TED×5 treated groups, while significant increase in creatinine level at TED dose level and triglyceride level at TED×5 dose level in comparison to the control group in main study. However, similar significant changes were not observed in higher dose of Rasasindura. After discontinuation of test drug in the recovery group, the observed changes in glucose level, creatinine, and triglyceride were almost same as seen in the recovery control group. Cholesterol level and HDL-cholesterol level in rats were unaffected by the test drug at all dose level in comparison to the control group; hence, it can be inferred that the observed changes do not cause any serious toxic effect (Table 4).
Biochemical Parameters    Control group    Drug treated groups    R control group    Recovery TED×10
TED    TED×5    TED×10
Glucose (mg/dl)    92.83±8.63    68.57±2.61*    70.85±4.11*    107.28±3.63    117.50±4.86    111.66±3.34
Urea (mg/dl)    69.83±4.88    81.00±2.43    64.00±4.35    69.14±8.74    88.60±5.00    65.16±3.15
Creatinine (mg/dl)    0.58±0.03    0.70±0.03*    0.62±0.03    0.55±0.02    0.56±0.02    0.60±0.02
Total protein (g/dl)    7.08±0.17    6.94±0.19    6.95±0.24    7.12±0.10    6.90±0.24    7.05±0.10
Albumin (g/dl)    3.58±0.16    3.61±0.15    3.67±0.23    3.72±0.08    3.36±0.14    3.35±0.08
Globulin (g/dl)    3.50±0.17    3.12±0.10    3.28±0.17    3.40±0.09    3.33±0.15    3.70±0.17
ALP (IU/L)    233.25±45.02    149.00±11.82    143.33±23.78    263.42±37.67    261.40±37.64    281.33±51.96
SGOT (IU/L)    138.16±7.85    153.28±9.11    142.85±8.42    148.85±9.83    124.50±8.65    143.83±5.17
SGPT (IU/L)    67.00±7.82    53.28±1.37    58.28±5.16    62.00±6.92    57.00±2.70    57.00±4.20
Uric acid (mg/dl)    0.70±0.13    0.81±0.09    0.84±0.09    0.72±0.06    0.95±0.16    1.05±0.09
D. Bilirubin (mg/dl)    0.13±0.03    0.11±0.01    0.10±0.00    0.12±0.02    0.13±0.03    0.13±0.02
T. Bilirubin (mg/dl)    0.45±0.05    0.48±0.07    0.41±0.04    0.48±0.06    0.45±0.07    0.48±0.08
Calcium (mg/dl)    9.58±0.30    8.98±0.17    9.81±0.25    9.22±0.22    9.35±0.22    9.48±0.09

The results are expressed as mean±SEM, where n=6. SEM: Standard error of mean. *P<0.05 compared with control group; @P<0.05 compared with recovery control group

Table 3: Effect of test drugs on biochemical parameters in rats recorded during chronic toxicity study.
Serum Lipid profile    Control group    Drug treated groups    R control group    Recovery TED x 10
TED    TED x 5    TED x 10
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)    34.33±3.45    38.42±1.81    37.28±3.92    30.71±2.01    37.50±3.59    28.16±1.86@
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl)    33.16±3.15    37.14±4.50    37.85±5.70    27.85±2.08    31.66±3.41    25.16±1.60
Triglyceride (mg/dl)    61.33±3.67    76.14±6.55    78.42±6.07*    70.28±6.80    70.16±5.29    73.83±8.56
VLDL-cholesterol (mg/dl)    12.26±0.73    15.22±1.31    15.68±1.21    14.05±1.36    14.03±1.05    14.76±1.71
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl)    11.10±1.68    13.32±3.86    14.40±3.30    11.20±0.80    7.43±1.90    11.76±2.26

The results are expressed as mean ± SEM, where n=6. SEM: Standard error of mean. *P<0.05 compared with control group; @P<0.05 compared with recovery control group

Table 4: Effect of test drugs on serum lipid profile in rats recorded during chronic toxicity study.

Significant decrease in blood urea was observed in recovery TED×10 treated rats in comparison to the recovery control group however same was not observed in main study. Test drugs did not influence the level of serum transaminases, urea, and creatinine to a significant extent in main study; which suggests that the test drug may not affected the liver and kidney function in the treated rats. The observed values of above bio-chemical parameters are within the normal range [30].

The histopathological studies of twenty organs showed that Rasasindura along with adjuvant at highest dose level exhibited mild to moderate changes in kidney, liver, intestine, stomach, and lung in comparison to the control group. Rasasindura produced mild pigment deposition, fatty changes in epithelium, and oedematous changes in kidney tubule, whereas recovery group showed normal cytoarchitecture (Figure 1). Rasasindura TED×10 and TED×5 treated groups exhibited pigment deposition, mild necrosis, and fatty changes in the liver in comparison the control group, while the recovery group showed almost normal cytoarchitecture (Figure 2). Test drug at highest-dose level exhibited mild to moderate loss of villi and cell infiltration in intestine (Figure 3) and displayed mild to moderate sub-mucosal inflammation in the stomach (Figure 4). Mild effusion was seen in cytoarchitecture of lung of one of the rat at higher dose of TED×10 dose level in comparison to the control group; whereas, in other dose levels the changes were almost normal (Figure 5). Bone marrow smear and the other organs exhibited normal cytoarchitecture in the Rasasindura-preparation treated groups, both in the main study as well as in the recovery study, in comparison to the control groups.
IJPS-Histopathology-kidney

Figure 1: Histopathology of kidney tissues (x400 magnification)
(A) Normal cytoarchitecture (control group), (B) edema and fatty changes (TED×5), (C) oedema, pigment deposition and fatty changes (TED×10), (D) almost normal cytoarchitecture (recovery TED×10)
IJPS-Normal-cytoarchitecture

Figure 2: Histopathology of liver tissues (x400 magnification)
(A) Normal cytoarchitecture (control group), (B) pigment deposition, mild necrosis and fatty changes (TED×5), (C) pigment deposition, mild necrosis and fatty changes (TED×10), (D) fatty changes (recovery TED×10)
IJPS-mild-moderate-loss

Figure 3: Histopathology of intestine tissues (x200 magnification)
(A) Normal cytoarchitecture (control group), (B) almost normal cytoarchitecture (TED×5), (C) mild to moderate loss of villi and cell infiltration (TED×10), (D) almost normal cytoarchitecture (recovery TED×10)
IJPS-almost-normal-cytoarchitecture

Figure 4: Histopathology of stomach tissues (x100 magnification)
(A) Normal cytoarchitecture (control group), (B) normal cytoarchitecture (TED×5), (C) mild to moderate sub-mucosal inflammation (TED×10), (D) almost normal cytoarchitecture (recovery TED×10)
IJPS-almost-normal-cytoarchitecture

Figure 5: Histopathology of lung tissues (x100 magnification) (A) Normal cytoarchitecture (control group), (B) normal cytoarchitecture (TED×5), (C) mild effusion (TED×10), (D) almost normal cytoarchitecture (recovery TED×10)

The observed histopathological changes were not seen at therapeutic dose level and not in the recovery study. The result of bio-chemical parameters reveal that the drugs do not seem to produce any drastic changes in the liver and kidney function parameters in rats; which suggests that the organ damage as mentioned above in chronic toxicity is of mild intensity at higher dose level, however drug is relatively safe at therapeutic dose level. In previous 28-d toxicity study also demonstrated that Rasasindura (50-100 mg/kg) in Wistar-albino rats did not have any adverse effect on kidney [31]. Further, feeding on Rasasindura supplemented food did not elicit any evidence of heavy metal toxicity in larvae or flies, since there was neither any evidence of lethality, nor of any developmental defects in the emerging flies [32].

The results reiterates the fact that Bhasmas, despite their trace heavy metal content, are safe when appropriately manufactured and consumed as per directed instructions [33]. Toxic effects of mercury were said to be neutralized in the presence of sulphur [6].

In Ayurvedic system of medicine, Anupana (called vehicle, as a medium of administration) improves acceptability and palatability and helps in absorption of the main drug; additionally, it may also act as early antidote [32]. Guduchi used as adjuvant in current study is having antioxidant property acts as hepatoprotective drug and has potential against aflatoxins and heavy metal toxicity [34,35].

From the present study, it is concluded that Rasasindura along with adjuvant is not toxic on acute administration at a maximum oral dose level of 2000 mg/kg in female rats. However, on chronic administration of test drug for 90 d produced mild to moderate adverse changes in the kidney, liver, intestine, and stomach of rats at TED×10 dose level, equivalent of which are not likely to be ever employed in clinical conditions, conversely Rasasindura at TED dose has no toxic potential. Rasasindura prepared as per customary method and administered with appropriate adjuvant is safe to consume at therapeutic dose level.
Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the staff of Pharmacology laboratory and R. S and B. K Department, Institute of Postgraduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda for their support.
Financial assistance

None.
Conflict of interests

None declared.
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The Indian Journal of Pharmacy was started in 1939 as "a quarterly journal devoted to the Science and practice of Pharmacy in all its branches". The Chief editor and the main guiding force behind the 'Journal' was Prof. M.L. Schroff, Head of the Department of Pharmaceutics. Benaras Hindu University, Benaras.
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