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Isabelle möchte nicht viel. Nur leben. Sie möchte ganz einfach leben. Aber sie hat Krebs. Wir haben per Mail von ihr erfahren und dann recherchiert.

Isabelle braucht Hilfe.




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96 Prozent der Bürger wollen Verbot unwirksamer Medikamente



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Reinwald paid 7 Euros for each bottle of "Rerum" and sold it to his dealers for 302 Euro a piece. Enduser price: 529 Euros per bottle.
Now, what do you think about the other "products" by Reinwald and his likes: Do you think they pay more than 7 Euros per bottle?
Can you imagine how badly you are cheated with a totally worthless shit they buy for 7 Euros and sell it to you for more than 500 Euros per bottle?


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Halifax anti-vaxx chiropractor Dena Churchill surrendered her licence in January and entered into a settlement agreement with the college in which she admits the charge of being "professionally incompetent as a result of incompetence arising out of mental incapacity."

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BEAT THE PHARMAMAFIA! DON'T LET THEM CASH IN $ 800000 !

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Große Sperraktion gegen Netzterroristen

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Author Topic: Ritalin verändert das Gehirn  (Read 4829 times)

wilma

  • Jr. Member
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  • Posts: 32
Ritalin verändert das Gehirn
« on: March 09, 2010, 10:04:25 AM »

... durch Wirkung auf zwei unterschiedliche Dopamin-Rezeptoren, D1 und D2.

Es geht um eine tierexperimentelle Studie!

aus
http://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/40350/Ritalin_veraendert_das_Gehirn.htm

[*QUOTE*]
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...
Die Studie bestätigt damit, dass Methylphenidat eine doppelte Wirkung auf die Aufmerksamkeitsstörung und auf kognitive Leistungen hat. Dies hat dazu geführt, dass Ritalin nicht nur zur Behandlung der ADHS eingesetzt wird, sondern zunehmend ein Missbrauch zur Steigerung kognitiver Leistungen stattfindet. Die Erkenntnis, dass beide Wirkungen über unterschiedliche Rezeptoren vermittelt werden, könnte zur Entwicklung neuer gezielter Wirkstoffe führen.
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Zur Pressemitteilung der University of California, San Francisco:
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-03/uoc--rbl030510.php


Das Abstract der Studie:

Nat Neurosci. 2010 Mar 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Methylphenidate facilitates learning-induced amygdala plasticity.

Tye KM, Tye LD, Cone JJ, Hekkelman EF, Janak PH, Bonci A.

[1] Ernest Gallo Clinic & Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, Emeryville, California, USA. [2] Program in Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Although methylphenidate (Ritalin) has been used therapeutically for nearly 60 years, the mechanisms by which it acutely modifies behavioral performance are poorly understood. Here we combined intra-lateral amygdala in vivo pharmacology and ex vivo electrophysiology to show that acute administration of methylphenidate, as well as a selective dopamine transporter inhibitor, facilitated learning-induced strengthening of cortico-amygdala synapses through a postsynaptic increase in AMPA receptor-mediated currents, relative to those in saline-treated rats. Furthermore, local administration of methylphenidate in the lateral amygdala enhanced cue-reward learning through dopamine D1 receptor-dependent mechanisms and suppressed task-irrelevant behavior through D2 receptor-dependent mechanisms. These findings reveal critical and distinct roles for dopamine receptor subtypes in mediating methylphenidate-induced enhancements of neural transmission and learning performance.

PMID: 2020852


Zum frei verfügbaren Volltext geht es hier:
http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/vaop/ncurrent/pdf/nn.2506.pdf
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