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Author Topic: Wie das WWW begann: der 6.11.1987, 18:41:42 EST Eastern Standard Time  (Read 2285 times)


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Dies ist das älteste im Archiv von auffindbare Posting der news-group alt.hypertext.

"Hypertext" ist der Name für Text mit Verknüpfungen ("Links") zu weiteren Texten. Aus der Verknüpfungstechnik ist das WWW entstanden.

Bob Webber:

Relay-Version: version B 2.10 5/3/83; site utzoo.UUCP
Path: utzoo!hoptoad!ptsfa!pyramid!decwrl!ucbvax!rutgers!!webber
Newsgroups: alt.hypertext
Subject: new group

Message-ID: <>
Date: Fri, 6-Nov-87 17:13:12 EST
Article-I.D.: aramis.2151
Posted: Fri Nov  6 17:13:12 1987
Date-Received: Sun, 8-Nov-87 18:41:42 EST
Organization: Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, N.J.
Lines: 23

Well, rather than rumaging through a half dozen groups looking for
discussion of hypertext, it should be easier to find it in a group
called hypertext.

Recalling, Pamela McCorduck's The Universal Machine, on page 67 there
was a passing reference:
    Translations and hypertext are texts connected organically to
    other texts, but text can be transmuted into other things,
    pictures, for example.  In 1984, Brown and M.I.T. were awarded a
    total of $3 million between them by the Annenberg/Corporation
    for Public Broadcasting Project for an electronic seminar to help
    scholars synthesize ideas, no longer hypertext, but hypermedia.
    (M.I.T. planned a novel interactive adventure game as a means of
    teaching foreign languages.) ...

It would seem that philosophically, the key issue here is what does it
mean to be ``texts connected organically to other texts.''

Practically, I suppose there is the question of what ever happened to
the $3 million? [ :-) ]

---------- BOB ( ; rutgers!!webber)

John Gilmore:

Relay-Version: version B 2.10 5/3/83; site utzoo.UUCP
Posting-Version: version B 2.10.3 4.3bsd-beta 6/6/85; site hoptoad.uucp
Path: utzoo!hoptoad!gnu
From: g...@hoptoad.uucp (John Gilmore)
Newsgroups: alt.hypertext
Subject: Hypertext Usenet
Message-ID: <3296@hoptoad.uucp>
Date: Fri, 6-Nov-87 22:05:32 EST
Article-I.D.: hoptoad.3296
Posted: Fri Nov  6 22:05:32 1987
Date-Received: Sun, 8-Nov-87 16:59:06 EST
Organization: Nebula Consultants in San Francisco
Lines: 65

[I would've cross posted to comp.society.futures but it's a "mod"
group and doesn't allow links to other groups.]

[Apple's Hypercard has more to do with "hype" than with "hypertext".
If you are looking for a hypertext system, look elsewhere.  I think
of hypercard as "shell scripts for the Mac".]

Now to the real topic -- the Hypertexting of Usenet.  People [in comp.
society.futures] have been proposing various strange character
conbinations to indicate hypertext content.  This is pretty silly.

(1)  We haven't figured out what kinds of information we want to
convey, so picking a representation is premature.

(2)  We already have a representation for the major thing we need
-- document to document links.  This is the <messageid@uniquehost>

Most proposed hypertext systems give the ability to link one piece
of text with another one, down to the character or word level.
Usenet currently only provides this at the article level, but for
the next few years I think that's fine.  Current literary references
(citations, bibliographies, footnotes, etc) typically refer to the
page or section level, which is about the same amount of text as
a Usenet article.


A major problem with turning the Usenet into a hypertext system is
the automated following of links.  Let's say I have an article which
references article <>.  I don't have a copy of 1234.
(Maybe it expired, maybe I didn't subscribe to it, maybe it got dropped
by somebody 3 feeds away.)  How do I get a copy?

Currently this is all done manually.  Though there are large archives
kept at various places, automated retrieval, even if you know the
unique message-ID of the article, is in an infant stage.

Before we start considering how to build the user interfaces and such,
I think we should shore up the infrastructures so that all the data
which is *somewhere* accessible on the network can be gotten without
human intervention.  *Then* build mechanisms, beyond the current
References: lines and such, for indexing this information so that you
can go from a desire-for-info-on-widgets to a bunch of article-IDs
to the actual articles.

Ideally I'd like to see a distributed database, updated when any user
does an "s" command to save a copy of an article (if that user & site
are willing for other people to be able to get it from them), that
would allow anybody else to locate and retrieve that article.  Hugh
Daniel and Jeff Anton and I sat down and designed a candidate database
setup a month ago, and it may be doable with a year or two of work.


This is not to say that we should abandon user interface work on the
Usenet; far from it!  But the timbers under the net are pretty rotten
for the kind of loads we will want to put on 'em, once we have better
user interfaces.

Love your country but never trust its government.
            -- from a hand-painted road sign in central Pennsylvania
« Last Edit: August 06, 2011, 08:19:44 AM by Thymian »
.         Im Angesicht von Gewalt ist Höflichkeit gegenstandslos.
.         At face with violence politeness is pointless.

.         (User TNT in the former CDU forum)
--------------------------------------- * --------------------------------------- * ---------------------------------------


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  • Posts: 2135
Re: Wie das WWW begann: der 6.11.1987, 18:41:42 EST Eastern Standard Time
« Reply #1 on: August 06, 2011, 08:39:05 AM »

Gary Perlman:

Path: gmdzi!unido!fauern!!!!!!perlman
From: (Gary Perlman)
Newsgroups: comp.multimedia,cis.hypermedia,comp.cog-eng,comp.human-factors,comp.infosystems,alt.cyberspace,comp.text,misc.writing,alt.hypertext,comp.sys.mac.hypercard
Subject: ACM Hypertext'91 Last Call for Posters
Message-ID: <>
Date: 28 Jul 91 21:26:57 GMT
Sender: (NETnews        )
Organization: Computer & Info Sci  Ohio State Univ  Columbus, OH 43210
Lines: 140

The deadline for poster submission is one month away.
This final call for posters contains more answers to
commonly asked questions.

                        A C M   H y p e r t e x t ' 9 1
                               San Antonio, Texas
               Sunday December 15 to Wednesday December 18, 1991

                         POSTER SUBMISSION INFORMATION
                          (please circulate and post)


              Submission Deadline: POSTMARKED by August 25, 1991

   Contents of this File:
      [1] GOALS
      [4] SUBMIT TO
      [5] LIMITS

Hypertext'91 is an international research conference on hypertext.  The ACM
Hypertext Conference occurs in the United States every second year in
alternation with ECHT, the European Conference on Hypertext.  Hypertext
systems provide computer support for locating, gathering, annotating, and
organizing information.  Hypertext systems are being designed for
information collections of diverse material in heterogeneous media, hence
the alternate name, hypermedia.

Hypertext is by nature multi-disciplinary, involving researchers in many
fields, including computer science, cognitive science, rhetoric, and
education, as well as many application domains.  This conference will
interest a broad spectrum of professionals in these fields ranging from
theoreticians through behavioral researchers to systems researchers and
application developers.  The conference will offer technical events in a
variety of formats as well as guest speakers and opportunities for
information special interest groups.

Poster presentations will allow researchers to present late-breaking results,
significant work in progress, or work that is best presented in conversation.
Poster sessions let conference attendees exchange ideas one-on-one with authors
and let authors discuss their work in more detail than in a paper presentation.

[1] GOALS =====================================================================
Posters will be accepted much later than papers and will provide an opportunity
to present and get feedback on new or developing ideas.  System developers
might want to contact Amy Pearl (, 415-960-1300) about
submitting a demonstration proposal instead or in addition to a poster.

[2] SELECTION CRITERIA ========================================================
Posters will be reviewed by a panel of subject-matter experts and will be
selected on the basis of their contribution to research or practice.

[3] SUBMISSION FORMAT =========================================================
Submit a cover page with:
 * title of the proposed poster
 * name and affiliation of the author(s)
 * complete contact information (including phone, fax, and email)
   for one contact person to whom correspondence will be addressed
Also submit an extended abstract of at most two typewritten pages describing:
 * the problem,
 * what was done, and
 * why the work is important.
Graphic displays can be appended to the two-page limit.
Electronic submission is preferred.  Include a "Subject:" line in the form:
   Subject: HT91 POSTER: title of your proposed poster

[4] SUBMIT TO =================================================================
   Gary Perlman
   Department of Computer and Information Science
   Room 228, Bolz Hall
   The Ohio State University
   2036 Neil Avenue Mall
   Columbus, OH 43210-1277 USA

   Phone:  614-292-2566
   Fax:    614-292-9021

[5] LIMITS ====================================================================
 * Because of the interactive nature of poster presentations,
   only one submission will be accepted per author.
 * All submissions must be postmarked by August 25, 1991.
   Overseas submissions should consider express mail if submitting late;
   sometimes, overseas mail takes more than two weeks.
 * There is a limit of two typewritten pages for submissions.
   Figures can be appended to these pages.

[6] ANSWERS TO COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS =======================================

Q:   When will the posters be displayed?
A:   Posters will be displayed almost all the time during the conference,
   from Monday Morning at 8:30am until 2:00pm Wednesday afternoon.
   There will be a two-hour block of time dedicated to the
   posters and demonstrations during Monday and Tuesday evenings.
   Poster presenters and demonstrators will be expected to have
   someone available to answer questions during those periods,
   although it would be useful to be available at other times.

Q:   Will the posters be published as part of the proceedings?
A:   No, but abstracts of the posters will be available at the conference.
   Posters will be technical "presentations" but not "publications".
   Some posters might make good papers for the SIGLINK newsletter,
   or other outlets.

Q:   How many posters will be accepted?
A:   The program and conference committees have allocated space for 25-40.
   The actual number accepted will not exceed the larger number, but we
   will not feel compelled to accept posters to fill the space.
   We want to have high quality posters as part of the technical program.

Q:   How will the posters be displayed?
A:   Several large meeting rooms have been reserved in the conference hotel.
   The conference committee and the posters chair have taken special
   care to provide ample room for people to walk through the posters.
   Each poster will be provided with a cork-board, table, and chair.
      cork board:  8' x 4' (2.44 m x 1.22 m)
      table:       8 x 15" (2.44 m x 0.38 m)
      chair:       4 legs (.004 kilolegs)
   Pushpins will be provided, but electrical outlets will not.

Q:   What about distribution of papers/articles?
A:   It is a good idea to bring a printed summary of your work
   for people to pick up.  Preprints have a tendency to disappear
   in large numbers.  I suggest you bring about 200, and that
   you put them out in stages.
   A similar number of business cards might also be useful,
   but you can put contact information on your paper.
   Keep a signup sheet on your table to get the names of people
   who were interested in your work.  Place a box for their cards.
Name:  Gary Perlman               | Computer and Information Science Department
Email: | Ohio State University, 228 Bolz Hall
Phone: 614-292-2566               | 2036 Neil Avenue Mall
Fax:   614-785-9837 or 292-9021   | Columbus, OH 43210-1277  USA
.         Im Angesicht von Gewalt ist Höflichkeit gegenstandslos.
.         At face with violence politeness is pointless.

.         (User TNT in the former CDU forum)
--------------------------------------- * --------------------------------------- * ---------------------------------------


  • Jr. Member
  • *
  • Posts: 2135
Re: Wie das WWW begann: der 6.11.1987, 18:41:42 EST Eastern Standard Time
« Reply #2 on: August 06, 2011, 08:52:47 AM »

Nari Kannan:

Path: gmdzi!unido!mcsun!uunet!decwrl!!!!!kannan
From: (Nari Kannan)
Newsgroups: alt.hypertext
Subject: Qualifiers on Hypertext links...
Message-ID: <>
Date: 2 Aug 91 17:52:41 GMT
References: <>
Reply-To: (Nari Kannan)
Organization: Digital Equipment Corporation
Lines: 15

   Is anyone reading this newsgroup aware of research or development efforts in
   following areas:

    1. Hypertext links enabling retrieval from multiple heterogenous sources of
    2. "Qualified Hypertext LInks" -- By this I mean attaching semantic
information to the links
        themselves and retrieval using this to cut down on links that get

  Any information would be appreciated

Tim Berners-Lee:

Path: gmdzi!unido!mcsun!cernvax!info
From: timbl@info (Tim Berners-Lee)
Newsgroups: alt.hypertext
Subject: Re: Qualifiers on Hypertext links...
Message-ID: <>
Date: 6 Aug 91 14:56:20 GMT
References: <>
Lines: 52

In article <> (Nari 
Kannan) writes:
>    Is anyone reading this newsgroup aware of research or development efforts 
> the
>    following areas:
>     1. Hypertext links enabling retrieval from multiple heterogeneous sources 
> information?

The WorldWideWeb (WWW) project aims to allow links to be made to any 
information anywhere. The address format includes an access method 
(=namespace), and for most name spaces a hostname and some sort of path.

We have a prototype hypertext editor for the NeXT, and a browser for line mode 
terminals which runs on almost anything. These can access files either locally, 
NFS mounted, or via anonymous FTP. They can also go out using a simple protocol 
(HTTP) to a server which interprets some other data and returns equivalent 
hypertext files. For example, we have a server running on our mainframe 
( in WWW syntax) which makes all the CERN computer 
center documentation available. The HTTP protocol allows for a keyword search 
on an index, which generates a list of matching documents as annother virtual 
hypertext document.

If you're interested in using the code, mail me.  It's very prototype, but 
available by anonymous FTP from It's copyright CERN but free 
distribution and use is not normally a problem.

The NeXTstep editor can also browse news. If you are using it to read this, 
then click on this: <> to find 
out more about the project. We haven't put the news access into the line mode 
browser yet.

We also have code for a hypertext server. You can use this to make files 
available (like anonymous FTP but faster because it only uses one connection). 
You can also hack it to take a hypertext address and generate a virtual 
hypertext document from any other data you have - database, live data etc. It's 
just a question of generating plain text or SGML (ugh! but standard) mark-up on 
the fly. The browsers then parse it on the fly.

The WWW project was started to allow high energy physicists to share data, 
news, and documentation. We are very interested in spreading the web to other 
areas, and having gateway servers for other data.  Collaborators welcome! I'll 
post a short summary as a separate article.

Tim Berners-Lee  
World Wide Web project         Tel: +41(22)767 3755   
CERN               Fax: +41(22)767 7155
1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland       (usual disclaimer)

Tim Berners-Lee:

Path: gmdzi!unido!mcsun!cernvax!info
From: timbl@info (Tim Berners-Lee)
Newsgroups: alt.hypertext
Subject: WorldWideWeb: Summary
Keywords: heterogeneous hypertext, web, source, protocol, index, information retrieval
Message-ID: <>
Date: 6 Aug 91 16:00:12 GMT
References: <>
Lines: 84

In article <> I promised to post a short summary  of the 
WorldWideWeb project.  Mail me with any queries.

                WorldWideWeb - Executive Summary

The WWW project merges the techniques of information retrieval and hypertext to 
make an easy but powerful global information system.

The project started with the philosophy that much academic information should 
be freely available to anyone. It aims to allow information sharing within 
internationally dispersed teams, and the dissemination of information by 
support groups.

     Reader view

The WWW world consists of documents, and links.  Indexes are special documents 
which, rather than being read, may be searched. The result of such a search is 
another ("virtual") document containing links to the documents found.  A simple 
protocol ("HTTP") is used to allow a browser program to request a keyword 
search by a remote information server.

The web contains documents in many formats. Those documents which are 
hypertext,  (real or virtual) contain links to other documents, or places 
within documents. All documents, whether real, virtual or indexes, look similar 
to the reader and are contained within the same addressing scheme.

To follow a link,  a reader clicks with a mouse (or types in a number if he or 
she has no mouse). To search and index, a reader gives keywords (or other 
search criteria). These are the only operations  necessary to access the entire 
world of data.

     Information provider view

The WWW browsers can access many existing data systems via existing protocols 
(FTP, NNTP) or via HTTP and a gateway. In this way, the critical mass of data 
is quickly exceeded, and the increasing use of the system by readers and 
information suppliers encourage each other.

Making a web is as simple as writing a few SGML files which point to your 
existing data. Making it public involves running the FTP or HTTP daemon, and 
making at least one link into your web from another. In fact,  any file 
available by anonymous FTP can be immediately linked into a web. The very small 
start-up effort is designed to allow small contributions.  At the other end of 
the scale, large information providers may provide an HTTP server with full 
text or keyword indexing.

The WWW model gets over the frustrating incompatibilities of data format 
between suppliers and reader by allowing negotiation of format between a smart 
browser and a smart server. This should provide a basis for extension into 
multimedia, and allow those who share application standards to make full use of 
them across the web.

This summary does not describe the many exciting possibilities opened up by the 
WWW project, such as efficient document caching. the reduction of redundant 
out-of-date copies, and the use of knowledge daemons.  There is more 
information in the online project documentation, including some background on 
hypertext and many technical notes.

     Try it

A prototype (very alpha test) simple line mode browser is currently available 
in source form from node [currently] as


Also available is a hypertext editor for the NeXT using the NeXTStep graphical 
user interface, and a skeleton server daemon.

Documentation is readable using www (Plain text of the instalation instructions 
is included in the tar file!). Document

is as good a place to start as any. Note these coordinates may change with 
later releases.


Tim Berners-Lee         Tel:   +41(22)767 3755
WorldWideWeb project      Fax:   +41(22)767 7155
C.E.R.N.         email:
1211 Geneva 23
.         Im Angesicht von Gewalt ist Höflichkeit gegenstandslos.
.         At face with violence politeness is pointless.

.         (User TNT in the former CDU forum)
--------------------------------------- * --------------------------------------- * ---------------------------------------
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