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Tatu Kaumau ist ein Schwein!
« on: February 24, 2018, 01:33:41 PM »

Was für ein Schwein! Was für ein sadistisches Schwein!

Frauen sind die treibenden Kräfte der weiblichen Verstümmelung. Frauen!



https://www.frauenrechte.de/online/index.php/themen-und-aktionen/eine-welt/aktuelles/2703-ein-gesetzliches-verbot-von-weiblicher-genitalverstuemmelung-steht-ausser-frage-so-rakieta-poyga

[*quote*]
„Ein gesetzliches Verbot von Weiblicher Genitalverstümmelung steht außer Frage“, so Rakieta Poyga

Rakieta Poyga, die Schirmherrin des Change Plus-Programms bei einer Tagung im Nov. 2017. Foto: © TERRE DES FEMMES


Am 26. Februar 2018 wird die Klage der Ärztin Dr. Tatu Kaumau zur Aufhebung des gesetzlichen Verbots von weiblicher Genitalverstümmelung (FGM – Female Genital Mutilation) in Kenia gerichtlich verhandelt. TERRE DES FEMMES (TDF) stellt sich massiv gegen die Forderungen der kenianischen Ärztin, das gesetzliche Verbot von FGM zu revidieren. Denn das Fehlen eines solchen Verbots kann verhängnisvolle Folgen für Mädchen und Frauen haben. FGM ist eine extrem frauenfeindliche Praktik und darf nicht geduldet werden.

Die Meldung von Dr. Kamaus Antrag auf Aufhebung des Gesetzes zum Verbot von Weiblicher Genitalverstümmelung (Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act, 2011) beherrschte über Wochen Kenias Medien.

Dr. Kamau begründet ihr Bestreben damit, dass ein Verbot gegen die Kulturen vieler afrikanischer Gemeinschaften gehen würde. FGM sei schon sehr lange eine integrale Praktik vieler Traditionen und würde sich daraus legitimieren. Ein Verbot würde diese Wurzeln verneinen. Doch sie geht noch weiter und bezeichnet das Verbot als Geschlechterungleichheit, wenn Jungen und Männern eine Beschneidung weiterhin erlaubt sei. Sie plädiert dafür, es (erwachsenen) Frauen selbst zu überlassen, sich für oder gegen den Vollzug des Eingriffs zu entscheiden.

Doch es bleibt die Frage: Wie viel Entscheidungsfreiheit haben Mädchen und Frauen tatsächlich? Wenn gesellschaftliche Ächtung und Stigmatisierung die Folgen bei einer Widersetzung der Praktik sind, haben sie dann wirklich eine Wahl?

Die Position der Ärztin entspricht weder TERRE DES FEMMES Ansichten noch ihren Erfahrungen. Das Argument, dass FGM kulturell verwurzelt ist, trifft zwar zu, jedoch sollte nicht aus den Augen verloren werden, dass die Praktik im engen Zusammenhang mit patriarchalen Herrschaftsstrukturen steht und mit einem System, das der Frau eine untergeordnete Rolle zuweist. Dr. Kaumaus Argumentation blendet nicht nur die Aspekte der Frauendiskriminierung aus, sondern auch die der körperlichen Gewalt und Verletzungen. Eine Gleichsetzung der weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung mit der männlichen Beschneidung ist eine unverantwortliche Verharmlosung, die über Tatsachen hinwegtäuscht.

FGM umfasst alle Verfahren, welche ohne einen medizinischen Nutzen die teilweise oder vollständige Entfernung der weiblichen Genitalien oder deren Verletzung zum Ziel haben. Sie stellt damit einen Verstoß gegen das Recht auf körperliche und psychische Unversehrtheit und die Kinderrechte dar.

Es ist bekannt, dass die verschiedenen Formen von FGM sowohl direkte als auch irreversible Langzeitfolgen haben können, die deutlich negative Auswirkungen insbesondere auf die physische und psychische Gesundheit der Mädchen und Frauen haben. Diese dürfen nicht verharmlost werden. Auch wenn der Eingriff im Krankenhaus stattfindet, bleiben die Risiken hoch.

Frauen bei der Aufklärungsarbeit über weibliche Genitalverstümmelung in Burkina Faso. Foto: © TERRE DES FEMMESFrauen bei der Aufklärungsarbeit über weibliche Genitalverstümmelung in Burkina Faso.
Foto: © TERRE DES FEMMESDaher prangert TDF die Verstümmelung der weiblichen Genitalien als extreme Ausprägung eines frauenfeindlichen Systems, als extreme Frauenrechtsverletzung und damit als Menschenrechtsverletzung an. Keine Menschenrechtsverletzung darf mit dem Bezug auf kulturelle Traditionen und Praktiken gerechtfertigt werden.

Aus diesem Grund setzt sich TERRE DES FEMMES für die weltweite Abschaffung weiblicher Genitalverstümmelung ein. In diesem Zusammenhang unterstützen wir unter anderem unsere Partnerorganisationen in den Kooperationsländern Burkina Faso und Sierra Leone. Hierbei hat sich deutlich gezeigt, welchen Unterschied ein gesetzliches Verbot macht. Während es in Sierra Leone kein Verbot gibt und die Zahl der Betroffenen sehr hoch ist
(88% der Mädchen und Frauen im Alter von 15-49 Jahren),
http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/fgm/prevalence/en/
hat das Verbot in Burkina Faso zu einer deutlichen Senkung dieser Zahlen (76%) geführt. Auch in Kenia lässt sich diese Tendenz erkennen (2008: 37%, 2014 nur noch 21%).

Bei einem gesetzlichen Verbot von FGM geht es nicht allein um die Bestrafung der TäterInnen. Ein Verbot bietet eben auch den Nichtregierungsorganisationen eine Grundlage und gesellschaftliche Legitimität für ihre Aufklärungsarbeit im Kampf gegen FGM. So konnte unsere Partnerorganisation Association Bangr Nooma (ABN) in Burkina Faso nachweislich über 33.000 Mädchen vor der Genitalverstümmelung bewahren. Die Gründerin Rakieta Poyga ist der Meinung: „Ein gesetzliches Verbot der weiblichen Genitalverstümmelung ist für uns in Burkina Faso zwingende Voraussetzung  im Kampf zur Überwindung von FGM.“ (Zitat Rakieta)

In diesem Kontext nimmt die Aufklärungs- und Sensibilisierungsarbeit auf Dorfebene einen besonderen Stellenwert ein. „Das Einbinden von Menschen aus der Gemeinschaft, insbesondere der Dorfchefs und auch der Beschneiderinnen selbst ist dabei ganz wesentlich“, so Renate Staudenmeyer, Referentin für Internationale Zusammenarbeit bei TERRE DES FEMMES.

Ein gesetzliches Verbot ist eine wichtige Grundlage, um den Wandel der Tradition FGM hervorzubringen und Mädchen und Frauen ein unversehrtes Leben zu ermöglichen. Wir hoffen inständig und machen uns dafür stark, dass die gerichtliche Klage von Dr. Kamau in Kenia nicht durchkommt, sondern eher dazu führt, dass sich noch mehr Menschen entschieden für ein NEIN zu FGM einsetzen.

 

Stand: 02/2018
Spenden Sie für unsere internationale Arbeit!

Copyright © 2013. All Rights Reserved.
[*/quote*]


[Zitat markiert. Yulli]
« Last Edit: February 24, 2018, 07:25:17 PM by Yulli »
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Yulli

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Re: Tatu Kaumau ist ein Schwein!
« Reply #1 on: February 24, 2018, 07:15:41 PM »

So ein verdammtes Schwein!

"Dr. Kamau begründet ihr Bestreben damit, dass ein Verbot gegen die Kulturen vieler afrikanischer Gemeinschaften gehen würde. FGM sei schon sehr lange eine integrale Praktik vieler Traditionen und würde sich daraus legitimieren."

Was Traditionen angeht, wäre das Auspeitschen eine gute Lektion für dieses Miststück. Auspeitschen ist seit Jahrtausenden geübte Tradition mit einer ausgezeichneten Erziehungswirkung.


Bei der Statistik gibt es eine sehr dumme Falle:

"Während es in Sierra Leone kein Verbot gibt und die Zahl der Betroffenen sehr hoch ist (88% der Mädchen und Frauen im Alter von 15-49 Jahren), hat das Verbot in Burkina Faso zu einer deutlichen Senkung dieser Zahlen (76%) geführt. Auch in Kenia lässt sich diese Tendenz erkennen (2008: 37%, 2014 nur noch 21%)."

Die haben aus der Bevölkerung das Segment "Frauen im Alter zwischen 15 und 49 Jahren" betrachtet:

Sierra Leone: 88% sind genital verstümmelt

Burkina Faso: 76% sind genital verstümmelt

Kenia: 21% sind genital verstümmelt

Das stimmt doch gar nicht!

Kenia 2008: 37%
Kenia 2014: 21%

Wie haben die das gemacht? Die Verstümmelung bleibt doch. Wo sind die verstümmelten Frauen geblieben? 16 Prozent von 2008 waren 2014 älter als 49 Jahre? Oder sind gestorben?

Wie kann man eine so blöde Statistik machen und nicht bemerken, was für einen Mist man da baut!?

Aus http://www.pharmamafia.com kriegt man gute Vergleichswerte, weil die Seite 2006 geschrieben wurde und Aribert Deckers die alten Daten drinnen gelassen hat.


http://www.pharmamafia.com

[*quote*]
Datenmaterial aus dem World Factbook der CIA

http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html

Geburtenrate
Kinder pro 1000 Einwohner

http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/rankorder/2054rank.html
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                                                   [Daten geschätzt in 2006) 

    Rank Country                        Birth rate (births/1,000 population)
      1  Niger                              50.73
      2  Mali                               49.82
      3  Uganda                             47.35
      4  Afghanistan                        46.60
      5  Sierra Leone                       45.76
      6  Chad                               45.73
      7  Burkina Faso                       45.62
      8  Somalia                            45.13
      9  Angola                             45.11
     10  Liberia                            44.77
     11  Congo, Democratic Republic of the  43.69
     12  Malawi                             43.13
     13  Yemen                              42.89
     14  Congo, Republic of the             42.57
     15  Burundi                            42.22
     16  Guinea                             41.76
     17  Madagascar                         41.41
     18  Zambia                             41.00
     19  Mauritania                         40.99
     20  Mayotte                            40.95
     21  Nigeria                            40.43
     22  Rwanda                             40.37
     23  Sao Tome and Principe              40.25
     24  Kenya                              39.72
     25  Djibouti                           39.53
     26  Gaza Strip                         39.45
     27  Gambia, The                        39.37
     28  Benin                              38.85
     29  Ethiopia                           37.98
     30  Tanzania                           37.71
     31  Guinea-Bissau                      37.22
     32  Togo                               37.01
     33  Comoros                            36.93
     34  Haiti                              36.44
     35  Oman                               36.24
     36  Gabon                              36.16
     37  Equatorial Guinea                  35.59
     38  Laos                               35.49
     39  Mozambique                         35.18
     40  Cote d'Ivoire                      35.11
     41  Maldives                           34.81
     42  Sudan                              34.53
     43  Eritrea                            34.33
     44  Central African Republic           33.91
     45  Cameroon                           33.89
     46  Bhutan                             33.65
     47  Marshall Islands                   33.05
     48  Senegal                            32.78
     49  Tajikistan                         32.65
     50  Iraq                               31.98
     51  West Bank                          31.67
     52  Nepal                              30.98
     53  Kiribati                           30.65
     54  Ghana                              30.52
     55  Solomon Islands                    30.01
     56  Guatemala                          29.88
     57  Bangladesh                         29.80
     58  Pakistan                           29.74
     59  Papua New Guinea                   29.36
     60  Saudi Arabia                       29.34
     61  Paraguay                           29.10
     62  Belize                             28.84
     63  Honduras                           28.24
     64  Zimbabwe                           28.01
     65  Syria                              27.76
     66  Turkmenistan                       27.61
     67  Swaziland                          27.41
     68  East Timor                         26.99
     69  Cambodia                           26.90
     70  El Salvador                        26.61
     71  Libya                              26.49
     72  Uzbekistan                         26.36
     73  Tonga                              25.37
     74  Philippines                        24.89
     75  Cape Verde                         24.87
     76  Nauru                              24.76
     77  Lesotho                            24.75
     78  Micronesia, Federated States of    24.68
     79  Nicaragua                          24.51
     80  Namibia                            24.32
     81  Bolivia                            23.30
     82  Dominican Republic                 23.22
     83  Botswana                           23.08
     84  Egypt                              22.94
     85  Malaysia                           22.86
     86  Kyrgyzstan                         22.80
     87  Vanuatu                            22.72
     88  Fiji                               22.55
     89  American Samoa                     22.46
     90  Ecuador                            22.29
     91  Tuvalu                             22.18
     92  Grenada                            22.08
     93  India                              22.01
     94  Morocco                            21.98
     95  Kuwait                             21.94
     96  Turks and Caicos Islands           21.84
     97  Panama                             21.74
     98  Mongolia                           21.59
     99  Jordan                             21.25
    100  Jamaica                            20.82
    101  Azerbaijan                         20.74
    102  Mexico                             20.69
    103  Colombia                           20.48
    104  Peru                               20.48
    105  French Guiana                      20.46
    106  Indonesia                          20.34
    107  World                              20.05
[*/quote*]

Pro 1000 Einwohner pro Jahr (in 2006) geschätzte Lebendgeburten:

      5  Sierra Leone                       45.76
      7  Burkina Faso                       45.62
     24  Kenya                              39.72

Weltdurchschnitt: World 20.05

Sierra Leone und Burkina Faso mehr als doppelt soviel wie der Weltdurchschnitt. Kenia ungefähr doppelt soviel wie der Weltdurchschnitt.

Und dann soll in Kenia in nur 6 Jahren der Anteil der genital verstümmelten Frauen von 37% auf 21% zurückgegangen sein? Da passen ein paar Dinge überhaupt nicht zusammen. Diese Statistik ist Schrott.


In der verlinkten Seite der WHO sind auch mehrere wirre Statistiken:

http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/fgm/prevalence/en/

[*quote*]
Sexual and reproductive health

Female genital mutilation (FGM)
Prevalence of FGM

It is estimated that more than 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone female genital mutilation in the countries where the practice is concentrated. Furthermore, there are an estimated 3 million girls at risk of undergoing female genital mutilation every year. The majority of girls are cut before they turn 15 years old (see Figure 1).

Female genital mutilation has been documented in 30 countries, mainly in Africa, as well as in the Middle East and Asia. Some forms of female genital mutilation have also been reported in other countries, including among certain ethnic groups in South America. Moreover, growing migration has increased the number of girls and women living outside their country of origin who have undergone female genital mutilation or who may be at risk of being subjected to the practice in Europe, Australia and North America.

The prevalence of female genital mutilation has been estimated from large-scale, national surveys asking women aged 15–49 years if they have themselves or their daughters have been cut. Considerable variations have been found between the countries, with prevalence rates over 80% in eight countries. Moreover, the prevalence varies among regions within countries, with ethnicity being the most influential factor.

The type of procedure performed also varies, mainly with ethnicity. Current estimates (from surveys of women older than 15 years old) indicate that around 90% of female genital mutilation cases include either Types I (mainly clitoridectomy), II (excision) or IV (“nicking” without flesh removed), and about 10% (over 8 million women) are Type III (infibulation). Infibulation, which is the most severe form of FGM, is mostly practiced in the north-eastern region of Africa: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan. In West-Africa (Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, etc.), the tendency is to remove flesh (clitoridectomy and/or excision) without sewing the labia minora and/or majora together.
References

    United Nations Children’s Fund, Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A global concern, UNICEF, New York, 2016.
    United Nations Children’s Fund, Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change, UNICEF, New York, 2013.


Figure 1 – Percentage distribution of ages at which girls have undergone FGM (as reported by their mothers)




http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/fgm/fgmfig1.jpg
Figure
Source: UNICEF, 2013


Figure 2 - Percentage of girls and women aged 15 to 49 years who have undergone FGM, by country




http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/fgm/fgmfig2.jpg
Figure
Source : UNICEF, 2013
[*/quote*]

Was sieht man? In der 2. Statistik nur die Gesamtzahl der verstümmelten Frauen in den Ländern. In der 1. Statistik sieht man die jeweilten Alter, in denen die Frauen jeweils beschnitten wurden. Diese Alter mögen sich unterscheiden, aber sie sagen kein bißchen aus über die Entwicklung.

Um über die Entwicklung etwas aussagen zu können, zum Beispiel über den angeblichen Rückgang in Kenia, müßte man Angaben haben über die jedes Jahr erfolgten Verstümmelungen. Und man müßte wissen, wie alt die Frauen sind.

Der "Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act" in Kenia ist aus 2011. Ab wann ist er gültig? Hat die Bevölkerung sich tatsächlich daran gehalten?


Hier ist ein interessanter Artikel über das Gesetz in Kenia. Eigentlich sind es 2: zuerst eines für Mädchen, dann eines für ALLE Frauen.

http://www.blog.makeeverywomancount.org/law-and-fgm-in-kenya/

[*quote*]
Law and FGM in Kenya

The active public discussion on the eradication of female genital mutilation (FGM) in Kenya has been ongoing since the late 1990s. In 1999, the Ministry of Health launched a “National Plan of Action for the Elimination of Female Circumcision”, particularizing the government’s commitment to ending the practice; shortly after, president issued a decree banning FGM and prohibiting government hospitals from performing FGM (FIDA 2009). This was followed by the Children’s Act, passed in 2001, coming into force in 2002, the first law in the fight to eradicate the practice. The Act made FGM illegal for girls under eighteen and imposed twelve months imprisonment and/or a fine of up to Kes 50,000 for breach of the law. Again in 2011 another law the “Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act 2011” came into force in October 2011.

The 2011 Act not only criminalized FGM for underage girls but for everyone and, in a bid to tackle social pressure, also banned the stigmatization of women who had not undergone FGM. The 2011 Act extended the powers of previous legislation, providing for the prosecution of those who perform FGM and anyone who aids such a person or who knowingly fails to report knowledge of such acts or pending acts in Kenya or abroad. The 2011 Act made the punishment more severe than the 2001 Act, making it three to seven years imprisonment or life imprisonment for causing death by performing FGM and a fine of Kes 200,000. In addition to the various national laws, Kenya is signatory to several international human rights conventions, denouncing FGM and requiring governments to have positive obligations towards victims.

It is meritorious on the part of the Kenyan government to conclude that there is a genuine and consistent commitment to eradicate FM, given the various national and international laws now in place in the country.  Many of the local and international organizations working to eradicate FGM in Kenya agree that the new laws are a great step forward. However, FGM continues to be practiced widely especially in the rural areas. It then begs the question of why the stringent legislation on the matter has not seen much success; if such success can indeed be measured in number of prosecutions.

Firstly, there is a great deal of secrecy among those who want to continue the practice. The reaction has been to take the practice underground with the aim of avoiding detection and subsequent prosecution.  They see the law as interfering with their traditional practices, and consider cultural concerns and religious beliefs as outweighing the illegality of FGM (FIDA 2009). To these communities, FGM represents an important part of a woman’s identity and place in the community; it brings respect and acceptability. With such secrecy comes the difficulty of apprehending the perpetrators.

Second, there are prevalent reports of police and other law enforcement agents accepting bribes from offenders to evade detection and prosecution (Pambazuka 2013). Most law enforcement officers are untrained on the issues surrounding the practices, and prohibition, of FGM. Some consider it as an interference with private and/or family, as well as community, life and are reluctant to intervene. For others, it is an additional source of “income”. The trend of viewing FGM as a second source of income has also been reported among health professionals with the increased medicalization of FGM.

Third, the average age of girls undergoing FGM is twelve to eighteen. With the enactment of the 2001 and 2011 Acts, the average age has steadily dropped to seven, in an attempt to avoid detection (28 Too Many 2013). The survivors and would be victims of FGM are disempowered girls with little voice, knowledge or social resources to make official complaints. They are unlikely to report their parents and other authority figures, including the circumcisers. They fear being ostracized and harassed by the community.

Statistics show that as of 2013, an estimated 27.1% of girls and women aged 15-49 years have undergone FGM. This figure has decreased from 37.6% in 1998 and 32.2% in 2003. There are various reasons attributed to the decrease. Organizations and stakeholders working on the eradication of FGM agree that while laws are an important step; it is not sufficient, although necessary; it requires a multi-faceted approach. To ensure that the law works, it has to be supported by educating and engaging with the community on the danger of FGM.

Training should also be given law enforcement officers and health professionals, not only on the negative impact of FGM, but also on their responsibility under the law, as well as on the consequences of neglecting those responsibilities. The government should also provide support for girls by funding more safe havens for girls in danger of being forced to undergo FGM. Most importantly, to stress the government’s commitment to eradicating the practice and protecting would be victims, more prosecutions of perpetrators and collaborators of FGM must take place.

This holistic and zero-tolerant approach has proved to be successful in France, where prosecution is relatively high and has worked as a deterrent (The Guardian 2014). In contrast, despite FGM being a crime in the United Kingdom since 1985, there has been no prosecution to date. A renewed debate on the issue and further legislation is in progress with the focus on how to use legislation, backed up by other tools such as education and better protection and support of victims (The Guardian 2014). There is much scope for countries to learn from each other. While it is clear that legislation is not a stand-alone solution, in conjunction with other approaches noted above, it has the potential to work as a great deterrent.


By Kirigo Njenga

Kirigo Njenga is from Nairobi, Kenya. She is a human rights lawyer, researcher and advocate practising in London. After chocolate desserts, her love is composing and performing music.
[*/quote*]

Das Gesetz zum Schutz für ALLE Frauen trat im Oktober 2011 in Kraft. 

Die Zahlen in dem "Terre des Femmes"-Artikel sind wohl falsch.

"Statistics show that as of 2013, an estimated 27.1% of girls and women aged 15-49 years have undergone FGM. This figure has decreased from 37.6% in 1998 and 32.2% in 2003."

Aber insgesamt ist bei den Zahlen anscheinend einiges oberfaul.

Hier:
1998: 37.6%
2003: 32.2%
2013 27.1% of girls and women aged 15-49 years have undergone FGM

Bei Terre des Femmes sind es 2014:

Kenia: 21% sind genital verstümmelt

Von 2013 auf 2014 soll die Zahl von 27,1% auf 21% gesunken sein? Das ginge nur durch ein Massensterben und/oder eine extreme Geburtenwelle.

Da stimmt etwas nicht!
« Last Edit: February 24, 2018, 07:55:21 PM by Yulli »
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Yulli

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Re: Tatu Kaumau ist ein Schwein!
« Reply #2 on: February 24, 2018, 08:03:28 PM »

Mit Fehlern beim Extrahieren aus dem PDF einigermaßen lesbar gemacht. Das Gesetz ist ein Fortschritt.

http://kenyalaw.org/kl/fileadmin/pdfdownloads/Acts/ProhibitionofFemaleGenitalMutilationAct_No32of2011.pdf

[*quote*]
Page 1
LAWS OF KENYA
PROHIBITION OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION ACT
No. 32 of 2011
Revised Edition 2012 [2011]
Published by the National Council for Law Reporting
with the Authority of the Attorney-General
http://www.kenyalaw.org
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[Issue 1]
NO. 32 OF 2011
PROHIBITION OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION ACT
ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS
PART I – PRELIMINARY
Section
1. Short title.
2. Interpretation.
PART II – THE ANTI-FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION BOARD
3. Establishment of the Board.
4. Composition of the Board.
5. Functions of the Board.
6. Powers of the Board.
7. Conduct of business and affairs of the Board.
8. Delegation by the Board.
9. Chief Executive Officer.
10. Staff.
11. The common seal of the Board.
12. Protection from personal liability.
13. Liability for damages.
PART III – FINANCIAL PROVISIONS
14. Funds of the Board.
15. Financial year.
16. Annual estimates.
17. Accounts and audit.
18. Investment of funds.
PART IV – OFFENCES
19. Offence of female genital mutilation.
20. Aiding and abetting female genital mutilation.
21. Procuring a person to perform genital female mutilation in another country.
22. Use of premises to perform female genital mutilation.
23. Possession of tools or equipment.
24. Failure to report commission of offence.
25. Use of derogatory or abusive language.
PART V – MISCELLANEOUS
26. Entry into premises.
27. Measures by Government.
28. Extra-territorial jurisdiction.
29. Penalty for offences.
SCHEDULE
– PROVISIONS AS TO THE CONDUCT OF BUSINESS AND
AFFAIRS OF THE BOARD
Page 4
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[Issue 1]
NO. 32 OF 2011
PROHIBITION OF FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION ACT
[Date of assent: 30th September, 2011.]
[Date of commencement: 4th October, 2011.]
An Act of Parliament to prohibit the practice of female genital mutilation, to
safeguard against violation of a person’s mental or physical integrity
through the practice of female genital mutilation and for connected
purposes
PART I – PRELIMINARY
1. Short title
This Act may be cited as the Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act, 2011.
2. Interpretation
In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires—
“Board” means the Anti-Female Genital Mutilation Board established
under section 3;
“female genital mutilation” comprises all procedures involving partial or
total removal of the female genitalia or other injury to the female genital
organs, or any harmful procedure to the female genitalia, for non-medical
reasons, and includes—
(a) clitoridectomy, which is the partial or total removal of the clitoris or
the prepuce;
(b) excision, which is the partial or total removal of the clitoris and the
labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora;
(c) infibulation, which is the narrowing of the vaginal orifice with the
creation of a covering seal by cutting and appositioning the labia
minora or the labia majora, with or without excision of the clitoris,
but does not include a sexual reassignment procedure or a medical procedure
that has a genuine therapeutic purpose;
“law enforcement officer” includes a police officer, a member of the
provincial administration, a children’s officer, a probation officer, a gender and
social development officer and a cultural officer;
“medical practitioner” means a person registered as such under the
Medical Practitioners and Dentists Act (Cap. 253);
“midwife” means a person registered as such under the Nurses Act
(Cap. 257);
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6
“sexual reassignment procedure” means any surgical procedure that is
performed for the purposes of altering (whether wholly or partly) the genital
appearance of a person to the genital appearance (as nearly as practicable)
of a person of the opposite sex;
“support services” includes the provision of shelter, medical services,
legal education, training of service providers and advocates against female
genital mutilation, and the provision of psycho-social support.
PART II – THE ANTI-FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION BOARD
3. Establishment of the Board
(1) There is established a board to be known as the Anti-Female Genital
Mutilation Board.
(2) The Board is a body corporate with perpetual succession and a common
seal and shall, in its corporate name, be capable of—
(a) suing and being sued;
(b) taking, purchasing or otherwise acquiring, holding, charging or
disposing of movable and immovable property;
(c) borrowing money or making investments;
(d) entering into contracts; and
(e) doing or performing all other acts or things for the proper
performance of its functions under this Act which may lawfully be
done or performed by a body corporate.
4. Composition of the Board
(1) The Board shall consist of—
(a) a chairperson appointed by the President;
(b) the Principal Secretary of the Ministry for the time being responsible
for matters relating to gender or a representative duly appointed in
writing;
(c) the Principal Secretary of the Ministry for the time being responsible
for matters relating to finance or a representative duly appointed in
writing;
(d) the Principal Secretary of the Ministry for the time being responsible
for matters relating to health or a representative duly appointed in
writing;
(e) the Principal Secretary of the Ministry for the time being responsible
for matters relating to education or a representative duly appointed
in writing;
(f)
the Principal Secretary of the Ministry for the time being responsible
for matters relating to youth affairs or a representative duly
appointed in writing;
(g) three other members appointed by the Cabinet Secretary; and
(h) the Chief Executive Officer.
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[Issue 1]
(2) A person appointed as a member of the Board under this Act, other than
an ex officio member, shall serve for a single term of six years and shall not be
eligible for re-appointment.
5. Functions of the Board
The functions of the Board shall be to—
(a) design, supervise and co-ordinate public awareness programmes
against the practice of female genital mutilation;
(b) generally advise the Government on matters relating to female
genital mutilation and the implementation of this Act;
(c) design and formulate a policy on the planning, financing and
co-ordinating of all activities relating to female genital mutilation;
(d) provide technical and other support to institutions, agencies and
other bodies engaged in the programmes aimed at eradication of
female genital mutilation;
(e) design programmes aimed at eradication of female genital
mutilation;
(f)
facilitate resource mobilization for the programmes and activities
aimed at eradicating female genital mutilation; and
(g) perform such other functions as may be assigned by any written
law.
6. Powers of the Board
The Board shall have all powers necessary for the proper performance of its
functions under this Act and in particular, but without prejudice to the generality
of the foregoing, the Board shall have power to—
(a) enter into contracts;
(b) manage, control and administer its assets in such manner and for
such purposes as best promote the purpose for which the Board is
established;
(c) determine the provisions to be made for capital and recurrent
expenditure and for the reserves of the Board;
(d) receive any grants, gifts, donations or endowments and make
legitimate disbursements therefrom;
(e) enter into association with such other bodies or organizations within
or outside Kenya as it may consider desirable or appropriate and in
furtherance of the purposes for which the Board is established;
(f)
open such banking accounts for its funds as may be necessary;
(g) invest any funds of the Board not immediately required for its
purposes; and
(h) undertake any activity necessary for the fulfilment of any of its
functions.
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7. Conduct of business and affairs of the Board
(1) The conduct and regulation of the business and affairs of the Board shall
be as provided in the Schedule.
(2) Except as provided in the Schedule, the Board may regulate its own
procedure.
8. Delegation by the Board
The Board may, by resolution either generally or in any particular case,
delegate to any committee or to any member, officer, employee or agent of the
Board, the exercise of any of the powers or the performance of any of the
functions or duties of the Board under this Act or under any other written law.
9. Chief Executive Officer
(1) There shall be a Chief Executive of the Board who shall be appointed by
the Board.
(2) The Chief Executive Officer shall hold office for a period of not more than
five years, on such terms and conditions of employment as the Board may
determine, and shall be eligible for re-appointment.
(3) The Chief Executive Officer shall be an ex officio member of the Board
but shall have no right to vote at any meeting of the Board.
(4) The Chief Executive Officer shall—
(a) subject to the direction of the Board, be responsible for the day to
day management of the Board;
(b) in consultation with the Board, be responsible for the direction of the
affairs and transactions of the Board, the exercise, discharge and
performance of its objectives, functions and duties, and the general
administration of the Board; and
(c) be the secretary of the Board.
10. Staff
The Board may appoint such officers, agents and other staff as are necessary
for the proper and efficient discharge of the functions of the Board under this Act,
upon such terms and conditions of service as the Board may determine.
11. The common seal of the Board
(1) The common seal of the Board shall be kept in the custody of the Chief
Executive Officer or of such other person as the Board may direct, and shall not
be used except upon the order of the Board.
(2) The common seal of the Board, when affixed to a document and duly
authenticated, shall be judicially and officially noticed, and unless the contrary is
proved, any necessary order or authorisation by the Board under this section
shall be presumed to have been duly given.
(3) The common seal of the Board shall be authenticated by the signature of
the chairperson of the Board and the Chief Executive Officer.
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(4) The Board shall, in the absence of either the chairperson or the Chief
Executive Officer, in any particular matter, nominate one member of the Board to
authenticate the seal of the Board on behalf of either the chairperson or the Chief
Executive Officer.
12. Protection from personal liability
(1) No matter or thing done by a member of the Board or by any officer,
member of staff, or agent of the Board shall, if the matter or thing is done bona
fide for executing the functions, powers or duties of the Board under this Act,
render the member, officer, employee or agent or any person acting on their
directions personally liable to any action, claim or demand whatsoever.
(2) Any expenses incurred by any person in any suit or prosecution brought
against him in any court, in respect of any act which is done or purported to be
done by him under the direction of the Board, shall, if the court holds that such
act was done bona fide, be paid out of the general funds of the Board, unless
such expenses are recovered by him in such suit or prosecution.
13. Liability for damages
The provisions of section 12 shall not relieve the Board of the liability to pay
compensation or damages to any person for any injury to him, his property or any
of his interests caused by the exercise of any power conferred by this Act or any
other written law or by the failure, wholly or partially, of any works.
PART III – FINANCIAL PROVISIONS
14. Funds of the Board
The funds and assets of the Board shall consist of—
(a) such gifts as may be given to the Board; and
(b) all moneys from any other lawful source provided, donated or lent to
the Board.
15. Financial year
The financial year of the Board shall be the period of twelve months ending on
the thirtieth June in each year.
16. Annual estimates
(1) At least three months before the commencement of each financial year,
the Board shall cause to be prepared estimates of the revenue and expenditure
of the Board for that year.
(2) The annual estimates shall make provision for all estimated expenditure
of the Board for the financial year and in particular, the estimates shall provide for
the—
(a) payment of the salaries, allowances and other charges in respect of
members and staff of the Board;
(b) payment of pensions, gratuities and other charges in respect of
members and staff of the Board;
(c) proper maintenance of the buildings and grounds of the Board;
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(d) maintenance, repair and replacement of the equipment and other
property of the Board; and
(e) creation of such reserve funds to meet future or contingent liabilities
in respect of retirement benefits, insurance or replacement of
buildings or equipment, or in respect of such other matter as the
Board may deem appropriate.
(3) The annual estimates shall be approved by the Board before the
commencement of the financial year to which they relate and, once approved,
the sum provided in the estimates shall be submitted to the Cabinet Secretary for
approval.
(4) No expenditure shall be incurred for the purposes of the Board except in
accordance with the annual estimates approved under subsection (3), or in
pursuance of an authorization of the Board given with prior written approval of
the Cabinet Secretary.
17. Accounts and audit
(1) The Board shall cause to be kept proper books and records of accounts of
the income, expenditure and assets of the Board.
(2) Within a period of three months after the end of each financial year, the
Board shall submit to the Auditor-General, the accounts of the Board together
with—
(a) a statement of the income and expenditure of the Board during that
year; and
(b) a balance sheet of the Board on the last day of that year.
(3) The accounts of the Board shall be audited and reported upon in
accordance with the provisions of the Public Audit Act, 2003 (No. 12 of 2003).
18. Investment of funds
(1) The Board may invest any of its funds in securities in which for the time
being trustees may by law invest trust funds, or in any other securities or banks
which the Treasury may, from time to time, approve for that purpose.
(2) The Board may place on deposit, with such bank or banks as it may
determine, any moneys not immediately required for the purpose of the Board.
PART IV – OFFENCES
19. Offence of female genital mutilation
(1) A person, including a person undergoing a course of training while under
supervision by a medical practitioner or midwife with a view to becoming a
medical practitioner or midwife, who performs female genital mutilation on
another person commits an offence.
(2) If in the process of committing an offence under subsection (1) a person
causes the death of another, that person shall, on conviction, be liable to
imprisonment for life.
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[Issue 1]
(3) No offence under subsection (1) is committed by an approved person who
performs—
(a) a surgical operation on another person which is necessary for that
other person’s physical or mental health; or
(b) a surgical operation on another person who is in any stage of labour
or has just given birth, for purposes connected with the labour or
birth.
(4) The following are, for the purposes of this Act, approved persons—
(a) in relation to an operation falling within paragraph (a) of subsection (3),
a medical practitioner;
(b) in relation to an operation falling within paragraph (b) of subsection (3),
a medical practitioner, a registered midwife or a person undergoing a
course of training with a view to becoming a medical practitioner or
midwife.
(5) In determining, for purposes of subsection (3)(a), whether or not any
surgical procedure is performed on any person for the benefit of that person’s
physical or mental health, a person’s culture, religion or other custom or practice
shall be of no effect.
(6) It is no defence to a charge under this section that the person on whom
the act involving female genital mutilation was performed consented to that act,
or that the person charged believed that such consent had been given.
20. Aiding and abetting female genital mutilation
A person who aids, abets, counsels or procures—
(a) a person to commit an offence under section 19; or
(b) another person to perform female genital mutilation on that other
person,
commits an offence.
21. Procuring a person to perform female genital mutilation in another
country
A person commits an offence if the person takes another person from Kenya
to another country, or arranges for another person to be brought into Kenya from
another country, with the intention of having that other person subjected to
female genital mutilation.
22. Use of premises to perform female genital mutilation
A person who knowingly allows any premises, for which that person is in
control of, or responsible for, to be used for purposes of performing female
genital mutilation commits an offence.
23. Possession of tools or equipment
A person who is found in possession of a tool or equipment for a purpose
connected with the performance of female genital mutilation, commits an offence.
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24. Failure to report commission of offence
A person commits an offence if the person, being aware that an offence of
female genital mutilation has been, is in the process of being, or intends to be,
committed, fails to report accordingly to a law enforcement officer.

25. Use of derogatory or abusive language
Any person who uses derogatory or abusive language that is intended to
ridicule, embarrass or otherwise harm a woman for having not undergone female
genital mutilation, or a man for marrying or otherwise supporting a woman who
has not undergone female genital mutilation, commits an offence and shall be
liable, upon conviction, to imprisonment for a term not less than six months, or to
a fine of not less than fifty thousand shillings, or both.


PART V – MISCELLANEOUS
26. Entry into premises
A law enforcement officer may, without a warrant, enter any premises for the
purposes of ascertaining whether there is or has been, on or in connection with
such premises any contravention of this Act.
27. Measures by Government
The Government shall take necessary steps within its available resources
to—
(a) protect women and girls from female genital mutilation;
(b) provide support services to victims of female genital mutilation; and
(c) undertake public education and sensitise the people of Kenya on the
dangers and adverse effects of female genital mutilation.

28. Extra-territorial jurisdiction
(1) A person who, while being a citizen of, or permanently residing in, Kenya,
commits an act outside Kenya which act would constitute an offence under
section 19 had it been committed in Kenya, is guilty of such an offence under this
Act.


(2) A person may not be convicted of an offence contemplated in subsection (1)
if such a person has been acquitted or convicted in the country where that offence
was committed.

29. Penalty for offences
A person who commits an offence under this Act is liable, on conviction, to
imprisonment for a term of not less than three years, or to a fine of not less than
two hundred thousand shillings, or both.


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[Issue 1]
SCHEDULE
[Section 7(1).]
PROVISIONS AS TO THE CONDUCT OF BUSINESS AND AFFAIRS OF
THE BOARD
1. Tenure of office
Any member of the Board, other than an ex officio member shall, subject to
the provisions of this Schedule, hold office for a single term of six years, on such
terms and conditions as may be specified in the instrument of appointment, and
shall not be eligible for reappointment.
2. Vacation of office
A member of the Board, other than an ex officio member, may—
(a) at any time resign from office by notice in writing to—
(i) in the case of the chairperson, the President; and
(ii) in any other case, the Cabinet Secretary; or
(b) be removed from office by the Cabinet Secretary if the member—
(i) has been absent from three consecutive meetings of the Board
without the permission of the chairperson;
(ii) is convicted of a criminal offence and sentenced to imprisonment
for a term exceeding six months or to a fine exceeding ten
thousand shillings;
(iii) is convicted of an offence involving dishonesty or fraud, or an
offence under the Anti-Corruption and Economic Crimes Act;
(iv) is adjudged bankrupt or enters into a composition scheme or
arrangement with his creditors;
(v) is incapacitated by prolonged physical or mental illness or is
deemed otherwise unfit to discharge his duties as a member
of the Board; or
(vi) fails to comply with the provisions of this Act relating to
disclosure.
3. Meetings
(1) The Board shall meet not less than four times in every financial year and
not more than four months shall elapse between the date of one meeting and the
date of the next meeting.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (1), the chairperson may,
and upon requisition in writing by at least five members shall, convene a special
meeting of the Board at any time for the transaction of the business of the Board.
(3) Unless three quarters of the total members of the Board otherwise agree,
at least fourteen days’ written notice of every meeting of the Board shall be given
to every member of the Board.
(4) The quorum for the conduct of the business of the Board shall be five
members including the chairperson or the person presiding.
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(5) The chairperson shall preside at every meeting of the Board at which he
is present but, in his absence, the members present shall elect one of their
numbers to preside, who shall, with respect to that meeting and the business
transacted thereat, have all the powers of the chairperson.
(6) Unless a unanimous decision is reached, a decision on any matter before
the Board shall be by a majority of votes of the members present and voting and,
in the case of an equality of votes, the chairperson or the person presiding shall
have a casting vote.
(7) Subject to subparagraph (4), no proceedings of the Board shall be invalid
by reason only of a vacancy among the members thereof.
4. Disclosure of interest by Board members
(1) If a member is directly or indirectly interested in any contract, proposed
contract or other matter before the Board and is present at a meeting of the
Board at which the contract, proposed contract or other matter is the subject of
consideration, that member shall, at the meeting and as soon as practicable after
the commencement thereof, disclose the fact and shall not take part in the
consideration or discussion of, or vote on, any questions with respect to the
contract or other matter, or be counted in the quorum of the meeting during
consideration of the matter:
Provided that, if the majority of the members present are of the opinion that
the experience or expertise of such member is vital to the deliberations of the
meeting, the Board may permit the member to participate in the deliberations
subject to such restrictions as it may impose but such member shall not have the
right to vote on the matter in question.
(2) A disclosure of interest made under this paragraph shall be recorded in
the minutes of the meeting at which it is made.
(3) A member of the Board who contravenes subparagraph (1) commits an
offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months, or to a
fine not exceeding one hundred thousand shillings, or both.
5. Execution of instruments
Any contract or instrument which, if entered into or executed by a person not
being a body corporate, would not require to be under seal, may be entered into
or executed on behalf of the Board by any person generally or specially
authorized by the Board for that purpose.
6. Minutes
The Board shall cause minutes of all resolutions and proceedings of meetings
of the Board to be entered in books kept for that purpose.
[*/quote*]
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Julian

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Re: Tatu Kaumau ist ein Schwein!
« Reply #3 on: February 24, 2018, 08:25:11 PM »

"Am 26. Februar 2018 wird die Klage der Ärztin Dr. Tatu Kaumau zur Aufhebung des gesetzlichen Verbots von weiblicher Genitalverstümmelung (FGM – Female Genital Mutilation) in Kenia gerichtlich verhandelt."

Die ist Ärztin! Approbation entziehen und sofort lebenslang in den Knast mit der.

Wenn das ein durchgedrehter Schamane wäre.  Aber die ist Arzt und dann auch noch Frau.

ZERO TOLERANCE!

Eigentlich hätte die schon aufgrund des bestehenden Gesetzes verurteilt werden müssen.
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Omegafant

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Re: Tatu Kaumau ist ein Schwein!
« Reply #4 on: March 02, 2018, 10:59:50 PM »



Transgallaxys Forum 1
>Was heisst hier "Kultur"!? Das ist eine Schande der Menschheit!
>Religionsgetriebenes Moerderpack
>Genitalverstümmelung: "Ihr Körper muss das Zeichen der Klinge tragen"
http://www.transgallaxys.com/~kanzlerzwo/index.php?topic=6907.0
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