TG-1 * Transgallaxys Forum 1

Das Überleben auf diesem Planeten / Gesunde Umwelt, gesunde Ernaehrung => Rettet die Natur! => Topic started by: ama on February 28, 2009, 03:53:35 PM

Title: Schifffahrt produziert viel Feinstaub: 60.000 Tote pro Jahr
Post by: ama on February 28, 2009, 03:53:35 PM
[*QUOTE*]
---------------------------------------------------
derStandard.at | Wissenschaft | Natur

28.02.2009 18:31

Schifffahrt produziert viel Feinstaub
Knapp eine Million Tonnen Partikel pro Jahr - Studienautor sieht großes Gesundheitsrisiko für Küstenbewohner

Washington - Die kommerzielle Seeschifffahrt produziert einer US-Studie zufolge halb so viel Feinstaub wie weltweit alle Autos zusammen. Aus den Maschinen der Schiffe gelangten knapp eine Million Tonnen Partikel pro Jahr in die Luft, schreibt die US-Klimabehörde NOAA.
[...]

Mögliche Folgen

Ein Mitautor der Studie, James Corbett, von der University of Delaware in Newark hatte in einer Studie von 2007 den Schiffsfeinstaub für jährlich 60.000 Todesfälle verantwortlich gemacht.
[...]
---------------------------------------------------
[*/QUOTE*]

mehr:
http://derstandard.at/text/?id=1234508205940


die Studie:

[*QUOTE*]
---------------------------------------------------
FastFind »   Lastname:  doi:10.1029/  Year:    | Advanced Search  

AGU: Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheres
 

Index Terms
Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles
Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution: urban and regional
Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere: composition and chemistry
Abstract
Cited By (0)
 

Particulate emissions from commercial shipping: Chemical, physical, and optical properties

Daniel A. Lack

Chemical Sciences Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, USA

James J. Corbett

College of Marine and Earth Studies, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA

Timothy Onasch

Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts, USA

Brian Lerner

Chemical Sciences Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, USA

Paola Massoli

Chemical Sciences Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, USA

Patricia K. Quinn

Pacific Marine Environment Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, Washington, USA

Timothy S. Bates

Pacific Marine Environment Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, Washington, USA

David S. Covert

Atmospheric Sciences Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

Derek Coffman

Pacific Marine Environment Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, Washington, USA

Berko Sierau

Atmospheric Sciences Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

Scott Herndon

Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts, USA

James Allan

National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

Tahllee Baynard

Chemical Sciences Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, USA

Edward Lovejoy

Chemical Sciences Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, USA

A. R. Ravishankara

Chemical Sciences Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, USA

Eric Williams

Chemical Sciences Division, Earth System Research Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, USA

We characterize particulate emissions on the basis of chemical, physical, and optical properties from commercial vessels. Observations during the Texas Air Quality Study/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study 2006 field campaign provide chemical and physical characteristics including sulfate (SO4 2−) mass, organic matter (OM) mass, black carbon (BC) mass, particulate matter (PM) mass, number concentrations (condensation nuclei (CN) > 5 nm), and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Optical characterization included multiple wavelength visible light absorption and extinction, extinction relative humidity dependence, and single scatter albedo (SSA). The global contribution of shipping PM was calculated to be 0.90 Tg a−1, in good agreement with previous inventories (0.91 and 1.13 Tg a−1 from Eyring et al. (2005a) and Wang et al. [2008]). Observed PM composition was 46% SO4 2−, 39% OM, and 15% BC and differs from inventories that used 81%, 14%, and 5% and 31%, 63%, and 6% SO4 2−, OM, and BC, respectively. SO4 2− and OM mass were found to be dependent on fuel sulfur content as were SSA, hygroscopicity, and CCN concentrations. BC mass was dependent on engine type and combustion efficiency. A plume evolution study conducted on one vessel showed conservation of particle light absorption, decrease in CN > 5 nm, increase in particle hygroscopicity, and an increase in average particle size with distance from emission. These results suggest emission of small nucleation mode particles that subsequently coagulate/condense onto larger BC and OM. This work contributes to an improved understanding of the impacts of ship emissions on climate and air quality and will also assist in determining potential effects of altering fuel standards.

Received 15 October 2008; accepted 12 December 2008; published 25 February 2009.

Citation: Lack, D. A., et al. (2009), Particulate emissions from commercial shipping: Chemical, physical, and optical properties, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D00F04, doi:10.1029/2008JD011300.

‹ AGU Home | ‹ JGR—Atmospheres Home | ‹ AGU Journals

©2009. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
---------------------------------------------------
[*/QUOTE*]

Quelle:
http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2009/2008JD011300.shtml

.